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Patent Summary

U.S. Patent Classes & Classifications Covered in this listing:

Class 359: Optical: Systems And Elements

Optical elements included in this class are: Lenses; Polarizers; Diffraction gratings; Prisms; Reflectors; Filters; Projection screens; Optical Modulators; Optical Demodulators. Among the optical systems included in this class are: Compound lens systems; Light reflecting signalling systems (e.g., retroreflectors); stereoscopic systems; Binocular devices; Systems of lenticular elements; Systems involving light interference; Glare reducing systems; Light dividing and combining systems; Light control systems (e.g., light valves); building illumination with natural light; Systems for protecting or shielding elements; Optical systems whose operation depends upon polarizing, diffracting, dispersing, reflecting, or refracting light; kaleidoscopes. Further included are certain apertures, closures, and viewing devices of a specialized nature which involve no intentional reflection, refraction, or filtering of light rays. This class also includes optical elements combined with another type of structure(s) to constitute an optical element combined with a nonoptical structure or a perfection or improvement in the optical element.

Subclass 337: Correction of deleterious effects
Subclass 337.1: Spectral gain flattening or equalization
Subclass 337.4: Complementary, adjusting stages
Subclass 341.3: Pumping

Class 375: Pulse Or Digital Communications

This is the generic class for pulse or digital communication systems using electrical or electromagnetic signals. Such communication includes transmitting an intelligence bearing signal from one point to another in the form of discrete variations in some parameter of the electrical or electromagnetic signal.

Subclass 219: TRANSCEIVERS
Subclass 220: Transmission interface between two stations or terminals
Subclass 221: Loopback mode
Subclass 222: Modems (data sets)
Subclass 224: TESTING
Subclass 225: Data rate
Subclass 260: Plural channels for transmission of a single pulse train
Subclass 285: Antinoise or distortion
Subclass 295: TRANSMITTERS
Subclass 316: RECEIVERS
Subclass 346: Interference or noise reduction
Subclass 347: Diversity (frequency or time)
Subclass 348: Intersymbol interference
Subclass 349: Plural signal paths in receiver
Subclass E1.02: Interference-related aspects (EPO)

Class 370: Multiplex Communications

This is the generic class for multiplexing or duplexing systems, methods, or apparatus.

Subclass 252: Determination of communication parameters
Subclass 286: Echo suppression or cancellation
Subclass 289: Having residual echo cancellation or suppression
Subclass 342: Combining or distributing information via code word channels using multiple access techniques (e.g., CDMA)
Subclass 480: Combining or distributing information via frequency channels
Subclass 485: Subscriber carrier

Class 398: Optical Communications

This class provides for all types of communication systems in which optical signals are used to transmit modulated carrier wave information between points. Such communication includes transmitting an intelligence-bearing signal from one point to another in the form of variations in a characteristic of the light wave. The communication may be through free space, fibers or waveguides. These are used to transfer the information with an optical beam, and this beam can be used in various communication schemes to enable the most effective or desired method of moving the information, including optical multiplexing when plural information signals or plural transmitters and receivers are utilized.

Subclass 136: Including compensation
Subclass 139: Including optical fiber or waveguide
Subclass 177: Monitoring
Subclass 181: Supervisory signal by repeater
Subclass 201: Including specific optical elements
Subclass 202: RECEIVER
Subclass 208: Including postcompensation
Subclass 209: Feedback
Subclass 21: Determined by reflection from break in fiber
Subclass 210: Amplitude
Subclass 211: Intermodulation
Subclass 212: Including optical element (e.g., lens, mirror, etc.)
Subclass 213: Having feedback
Subclass 214: Including optical waveguide
Subclass 25: Determination of communication parameter
Subclass 26: Signal to noise ratio
Subclass 27: Bit error rate
Subclass 30: Using supervisory signal
Subclass 31: Different wavelengths for diagnostic and communication
Subclass 32: Pilot signal
Subclass 33: Monitoring
Subclass 38: Power
Subclass 67: Bidirectional
Subclass 68: WDM
Subclass 70: Hub or central office
Subclass 72: Bidirectional

Class 250: Radiant Energy

This class provides for all methods and apparatus for using, generating, controlling or detecting radiant energy, combinations including such methods or apparatus, subcombinations of same and accessories therefore not classifiable elsewhere.

Subclass 214.1: Special photocell
Subclass 214A: Amplifier type
Subclass 214AG: Automatic gain control
Subclass 214LA: Light amplifier type
Subclass 214R: Special photocell or electron tube circuits
Subclass 214SW: Electronic switch

Class 327: Miscellaneous Active Electrical Nonlinear Devices, Circuits, And Systems

This is the residual class for electrical devices, circuits or systems having an output not directly proportional to its input and comprising at least one component which can provide gain or can route electrical current and which device, circuit or system does not form a complete system such as is classified specifically elsewhere or a subcombination of utility only in such elsewhere classified system.

Subclass 513: With compensation for temperature fluctuations
Subclass 514: Light

Class 356: Optics: Measuring And Testing

Methods and apparatus (1) for analyzing light to measure or test its characteristics, such as intensity, color and polarization; (2) for determining the optical or nonoptical properties of materials or articles by noting, as by inspection, measurement, or test the effect produced by the materials or articles on light associated therewith; and (3) for measuring the dimensions of structures or the spatial relationships such as distances or angle bearings of spaced points by comparison of the respective properties (usually direction or spatial position) of the light from these points or by comparison of the properties of these lights with some scale or standard. The light analyzing includes or is for spectroscopy, interference, polarization, beam direction or pattern, focal position of a light source, shade or color, and photometers. The material or article properties determined are or involve crystal or gem examination, material strain analysis, blood analysis, optical pyrometers, egg candling, cutting blade sharpness, oil testing, document verification, flatness, lens or reflector testing, refraction testing, monitoring moving webs or fabrics, light transmission or absorption, light reflection, inspection for flaws or imperfections in materials, and thread counting. The dimensioning and spatial relationship determination includes triangulation by a light beam, contour plotting, range or height finders, motion stopping, velocity or velocity/height measuring, sighting where the optical element or reticle moves with the sighted object, particle size determination, particle light scattering, electrophoresis, angle measuring or axial alignment, mensuration or configuration comparison, alignment in a lateral direction, and fiducial instruments.


Class 361: Electricity: Electrical Systems And Devices

Systems or devices which provide safety and protection for other systems and devices; control circuits for electromagnetic devices and non-electromagnetic-type relays. Systems or devices which discharge, or prevent the accumulation of electrical charge on or in an object or material; circuits for charging objects or materials. Systems for generating or conducting an electric charge. Systems which process electrical speed signals. Circuits for reversing the polarity of an electric circuit. Systems which cause the ignition of a fuel or an explosive charge. Systems and processes for demagnetizing a magnetic field. Transformers and inductors with integral switch, capacitor or lock. Electrostatic capacitors, per se. Housings and mounting assemblies with plural diverse electrical components. Electrolytic systems and devices.

Subclass 93.8: Thermal sensing
Subclass 94: With time delay protective means

Class 379: Telephonic Communications

(1) Systems, processes and instruments for the two-way electrical transmission of intelligible audio information having arbitrary content over a link including an electrical conductor, between spaced apart locations, so as to enable conversation therebetween, and intended for the private use of a listener or a group of listeners. The term "intelligible" used above is intended to include the capability for transmission of speech or the like (e.g., music), rather than restriction to a specified audible signal, such as a bell or buzzer. (2) Switching, signalling or signal transmission peculiar to, or specified as for a telephone or a telephone system, except for multiplex communications as indicated in Lines With Other Classes.

Subclass 406.06: Using digital signal processing
Subclass 416: Interference suppression
Subclass 417: Anticrosstalk

Class 333: Wave Transmission Lines And Networks

Electric wave transmission systems wherein electromagnetic wave energy is guided or constrained by a wave transmission device of the long line type other than loaded lines. Included are passive wave transmission networks simulating the characteristics of a long line wave transmission systems or wave guides, such as artificial lines, delay networks, resonators, impedance matching networks, equalizers, wave filters and transmission line terminations. Passive coupling networks and terminating networks having either lumped or distributed electrical circuit parameters and having impedance characteristics. Smoothing type wave filters having shunt capacitance, or series inductance. Networks including a wave transmission device and means for decreasing the amplitude range of the signal applied to the transmission device as the signal increases in amplitude and means for increasing or restoring the amplitude range of the signal after the transmission over the transmission device. Passive networks for producing an output wave which is the time derivative or time integral of the input wave. Systems including active elements for producing across at least two of the system terminals a negative resistance, and/or an inductance, or capacitance which may be positive or negative. Wave traps using long line elements.

Subclass 117: Including hybrid-type network

Class 330: Amplifiers

This is the generic class for amplifiers, included: Amplifiers having all types of active elements (or amplifying devices), amplifier systems having plural amplifier channels, cascade amplifiers, push-pull amplifiers and other amplifiers having plural amplifier devices. Also included are amplifiers with plural signal sources or plural loads. Amplifiers including the means coupling the signal source to the amplifier or coupling the amplifier to the load or between cascaded stages are also included. Amplifiers combined with tone control means. Amplifiers combined with amplitude (volume) control means whether by manual control, by control of an electrode D.C. bias. Amplifiers combined with power supply. Amplifiers combined with structural features of the amplifier or the amplifier circuit elements. Amplifiers having signal feedback means.

Subclass 284: Having attenuation means in signal transmission path

Class 455: Telecommunications

This is the generic class for modulated carrier wave communications not elsewhere classifiable.

Subclass 446: Including cell planning or layout
Subclass 452.1: Dynamic allocation