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Patent Summary

U.S. Patent Classes & Classifications Covered in this listing:

Class 382: Image Analysis

This is the generic class for apparatus and corresponding methods for the automated analysis of an image or recognition of a pattern. Included herein are systems that transform an image for the purpose of (a) enhancing its visual quality prior to recognition, (b) locating and registering the image relative to a sensor or stored prototype, or reducing the amount of image data by discarding irrelevant data, and (c) measuring significant characteristics of the image.

Subclass 100: APPLICATIONS
Subclass 103: Target tracking or detecting
Subclass 106: Range or distance measuring
Subclass 107: Motion or velocity measuring
Subclass 118: Using a facial characteristic
Subclass 143: Inspection of packaged consumer goods
Subclass 154: 3-D or stereo imaging analysis
Subclass 166: Compression of color images
Subclass 167: Color correction
Subclass 199: Pattern boundary and edge measurements
Subclass 203: Shape and form analysis
Subclass 205: Local neighborhood operations (e.g., 3x3 kernel, window, or matrix operator)
Subclass 224: Classification
Subclass 233: Including details of decompression
Subclass 235: Substantial processing of image in compressed form
Subclass 236: Interframe coding (e.g., difference or motion detection)
Subclass 238: Predictive coding
Subclass 239: Adaptive coding (i.e., changes based upon history, activity, busyness, etc.)
Subclass 240: Pyramid, hierarchy, or tree structure
Subclass 243: Shape, icon, or feature-based compression
Subclass 244: Lossless compression
Subclass 248: Transform coding
Subclass 250: Discrete cosine or sine transform
Subclass 253: Vector quantization
Subclass 260: Image filter
Subclass 261: Adaptive filter
Subclass 263: Highpass filter (i.e., for sharpening or enhancing details)
Subclass 264: Lowpass filter (i.e., for blurring or smoothing)
Subclass 265: Recursive filter
Subclass 266: Edge or contour enhancement
Subclass 268: Minimize discontinuities at boundaries of image blocks (i.e., reducing blocking effects or effects of wrap-around)
Subclass 270: Variable threshold, gain, or slice level
Subclass 272: Based on a local average, mean, or median
Subclass 273: Based on peak levels
Subclass 274: Intensity, brightness, contrast, or shading correction
Subclass 275: Artifact removal or suppression (e.g., distortion correction)
Subclass 285: Mapping 2-D image onto a 3-D surface
Subclass 296: To rotate an image
Subclass 298: To change the scale or size of an image
Subclass 299: Raising or lowering the image resolution (e.g., subpixel accuracy)
Subclass 300: Interpolation
Subclass 303: Pipeline processing

Class 375: Pulse Or Digital Communications

This is the generic class for pulse or digital communication systems using electrical or electromagnetic signals. Such communication includes transmitting an intelligence bearing signal from one point to another in the form of discrete variations in some parameter of the electrical or electromagnetic signal.

Subclass 240.01: Television or motion video signal
Subclass 240.03: Quantization
Subclass 240.07: Feed back
Subclass 240.08: Feature based
Subclass 240.12: Predictive
Subclass 240.13: Intra/inter selection
Subclass 240.14: Plural
Subclass 240.15: Bidirectional
Subclass 240.16: Motion vector
Subclass 240.18: Transform
Subclass 240.21: Subsampling
Subclass 240.22: Vector quantization
Subclass 240.24: Block coding
Subclass 240.25: Specific decompression process
Subclass 240.26: Associated signal processing
Subclass 240.29: Pre/post filtering
Subclass 250: Redundancy removal
Subclass 346: Interference or noise reduction
Subclass 373: Phase locking
Subclass E7.012: Where the control is performed by the receiver of the video, e.g., active selection by the receiver from a scalable bitstream or selective multicast subscription (EPO)
Subclass E7.022: Involving modification of bitstream parameters, e.g., restamping of time stamps, remapping of identifiers transmultiplexing (EPO)
Subclass E7.025: Involving transporting of the bitstream over a delivery medium (EPO)
Subclass E7.092: Involving multi-layer decomposition; subsequent reconstruction (EPO)
Subclass E7.093: Implementation arrangements, e.g., implementation by hardware of software (EPO)
Subclass E7.102: Access to external memory (EPO)
Subclass E7.105: Methods (EPO)
Subclass E7.106: Global motion vector estimation (EPO)
Subclass E7.107: Multiresolution or hierarchical method (EPO)
Subclass E7.109: Nonblock-based processing (EPO)
Subclass E7.11: Using feature points or meshes (EPO)
Subclass E7.117: Dealing with occlusions (EPO)
Subclass E7.119: Search initialization, i.e., estimating a good candidate to initiate a search (EPO)
Subclass E7.123: Processing of motion vectors (EPO)
Subclass E7.133: Predictor (EPO)
Subclass E7.138: Encoding parameters processing, e.g., initialization, alteration, compression (EPO)
Subclass E7.14: Details of quantization, normalization or weighting functions, e.g., normalization parameters or matrices, variable uniform quantizes, weighting matrices (EPO)
Subclass E7.15: Picture structure, e.g., interlaced/progressive (EPO)
Subclass E7.153: Rate distortion criteria (EPO)
Subclass E7.155: Using a combination of feedforward and feedback control (EPO)
Subclass E7.157: Based on model-estimated code amount (EPO)
Subclass E7.158: Based on off-line generated code amount (EPO)
Subclass E7.159: Feedback control, i.e., control using output code amount, e.g., buffer fullness (EPO)
Subclass E7.163: Motion, e.g., field or frame difference (EPO)
Subclass E7.168: Resource availability (EPO)
Subclass E7.176: Block or macroblock (EPO)
Subclass E7.177: Transform coefficient (EPO)
Subclass E7.181: Picture (EPO)
Subclass E7.182: Image region, e.g., region of interest (ROI), object (EPO)
Subclass E7.189: Involving preprocessing or postprocessing therefor (EPO)
Subclass E7.19: Involving reduction of coding artifacts, e.g., of blockiness (EPO)
Subclass E7.211: Involving transform and predictive coding , e.g., hybrid coding, Motion Picture Experts Group (MPEG) coding (EPO)
Subclass E7.218: With feedforward and feedback control of the data rate (EPO)
Subclass E7.221: Motion adaptive (EPO)
Subclass E7.226: Involving transform coding, e.g., using discrete cosine transform (DCT) (EPO)
Subclass E7.235: With feedforward control only of the data rate, e.g., information amount estimator or sorter being used (EPO)
Subclass E7.241: Involving pre-processing of the picture element samples before transform coding or post-processing of the same after transform decoding (EPO)
Subclass E7.252: Involving spatial subsampling or upsampling; Alteration of picture size or resolution (EPO)
Subclass E7.256: Using motion compensation, e.g., by means of motion vectors (EPO)
Subclass E7.261: Nonblock-based (EPO)
Subclass E7.263: Using motion detection, e.g., with detection of moving zones (EPO)
Subclass E7.207: Using a dither signal (EPO)
Subclass E7.271: Said other signal being a related audio signal (EPO)
Subclass E7.278: Synchronizing systems therefor (EPO)

Class 1:

Class 345: Computer Graphics Processing And Selective Visual Display Systems

Processes and apparatus for selective electrical control of two or more light-generating or light-controlling display elements* in accordance with a received or stored image data signal. The image data includes character, graphical information or display attribute data. The image data may include, for example, information data from a peripheral input device, from the reception of a television signal, from the recognition of image data, or from the generation or creation of image data by a computer.

Subclass 100: Particular row or column control (e.g., shift register)
Subclass 206: Having common base or substrate
Subclass 209: Field period polarity reversal
Subclass 210: Having three or more voltage levels
Subclass 212: Regulating means
Subclass 213: Synchronizing means
Subclass 3.2: Frame, field or scan rate conversion
Subclass 419: Three-dimension
Subclass 421: Hidden line/surface determining
Subclass 427: Space transformation
Subclass 428: Adjusting level of detail
Subclass 467: Character generating
Subclass 472: Scaling
Subclass 472.2: Enlargement only
Subclass 475: Temporal interpolation or processing
Subclass 50: Liquid crystal elements
Subclass 503: Coprocessor (e.g., graphic accelerator)
Subclass 506: Pipeline processors
Subclass 519: Integrated circuit (e.g., single chip semiconductor device)
Subclass 520: Interface (e.g., controller)
Subclass 534: Memory access timing signals
Subclass 55: Display elements arranged in matrix (e.g., rows and columns)
Subclass 552: Texture memory
Subclass 582: Texture
Subclass 583: Solid Texture
Subclass 584: Bump map
Subclass 586: Mathematically defined
Subclass 587: MIP map
Subclass 589: Color or intensity
Subclass 590: Gamut clipping or adjustment
Subclass 596: Dither or halftone
Subclass 597: Color
Subclass 598: Spatial
Subclass 599: Spatial
Subclass 600: Color bit data modification or conversion
Subclass 602: Plural look up tables
Subclass 604: Color space transformation (e.g., RGB to YUV)
Subclass 606: Interpolation of attribute values across object surface
Subclass 611: Anti-aliasing or image smoothing
Subclass 616: Error diffusion
Subclass 617: Contrast
Subclass 619: Graphic manipulation (object processing or display attributes)
Subclass 629: Merge or overlay
Subclass 63: Intensity control
Subclass 639: Weighted
Subclass 649: Rotation
Subclass 660: Scaling
Subclass 668: By arbitrary ratio
Subclass 669: By integer multiples
Subclass 690: Intensity or color driving control (e.g., gray scale)
Subclass 87: Liquid crystal display elements (LCD)
Subclass 88: Color
Subclass 94: Waveform generation
Subclass 99: Particular timing circuit

Class 348: Television

Generating, processing, transmitting or transiently displaying a sequence of images, either locally or remotely, in which the local light variations composing the images may change with time.

Subclass 51: Stereoscopic display device
Subclass 222.1: Combined image signal generator and general image signal processing
Subclass 229.1: Combined automatic gain control and exposure control (i.e., sensitivity control)
Subclass 246: Defective pixel (e.g., signal replacement)
Subclass 254: Gray scale transformation (e.g., gamma correction)
Subclass 262: With plural image scanning devices
Subclass 268: Color sequential
Subclass 273: With color filter or operation according to color filter
Subclass 348: Using active ranging
Subclass 400.1: Involving hybrid transform and difference coding
Subclass 402.1: Including motion vector
Subclass 409.1: Involving difference transmission (e.g., predictive)
Subclass 413.1: Including motion vector
Subclass 416.1: Including motion vector
Subclass 421.1: Involving minimum, maximum, or average of block
Subclass 442: Involving polar to Cartesian or vice versa
Subclass 443: Involving both line number and field rate conversion (e.g., PAL to NTSC)
Subclass 445: Conversion between standards with different aspect ratios
Subclass 446: Progressive to interlace
Subclass 447: Field rate type flicker compensating
Subclass 448: Line doublers type (e.g., interlace to progressive IDTV type)
Subclass 452: Motion adaptive
Subclass 458: Changing number of lines for standard conversion
Subclass 459: Changing number of fields for standard conversion
Subclass 513: Frame or field synchronizers
Subclass 533: Noise reduction
Subclass 536: Automatic phase or frequency control
Subclass 537: Of sampling or clock
Subclass 538: With data interpolation
Subclass 547: Vertical sync component
Subclass 563: For display of additional information
Subclass 564: Simultaneously and on same screen (e.g., multiscreen)
Subclass 567: Memory
Subclass 569: Receiver indicator (e.g., on screen display)
Subclass 576: Selective image modification (e.g., touch up)
Subclass 581: Size change
Subclass 584: Combining plural sources
Subclass 587: Including hue detection (e.g., chroma key)
Subclass 590: Specified details of key signal generation or processing
Subclass 591: Self keyers (e.g., key generated from video being mixed
Subclass 592: Chroma key (e.g., hue detector)
Subclass 597: For generation of soft edge (e.g., blending)
Subclass 603: Specified color (e.g., saturation and contrast control)
Subclass 606: Combined noise reduction and transition sharpening
Subclass 607: Noise or undesired signal reduction
Subclass 614: Ghost elimination (e.g., multipath)
Subclass 617: For color television
Subclass 618: For removal of low amplitude random noise (e.g., variable bandwidth)
Subclass 619: Averaging type
Subclass 623: Coring type
Subclass 624: For color television
Subclass 625: Transition or edge sharpeners
Subclass 627: Including processing to prevent the addition of noise (e.g., coring enhancement signal, noise responsive peaking control)
Subclass 648: Picture responsive (e.g., overload)
Subclass 672: Using histogram
Subclass 673: Combined contrast control and brightness or DC level control
Subclass 674: Nonlinear amplitude modification (e.g., gamma)
Subclass 675: Color television
Subclass 678: Automatic range control (e.g., AGC, automatic contrast control)
Subclass 679: Color television
Subclass 686: Manual contrast control (e.g., linear)
Subclass 687: Brightness control
Subclass 699: Motion vector generation
Subclass 700: Motion dependent key signal generation or scene change detection
Subclass 701: Specified processing of frame or field difference signal (e.g., noise reduction, key signal spreading)
Subclass 716: Specified data formatting (e.g., memory mapping)
Subclass 790: Liquid crystal
Subclass 807: Color convergence correction
Subclass E9.01: Using solid-state devices (EPO)
Subclass E9.029: Color synchronization (EPO)
Subclass E9.042: For image enhancement, e.g., vertical detail restoration, cross-color elimination, contour correction, chrominance trapping filters (EPO)
Subclass E9.053: For controlling the amplitude of color signals, e.g., automatic chroma control circuits (EPO)
Subclass E9.054: For modifying the color signals by gamma correction (EPO)
Subclass E9.055: For obtaining special effects (EPO)
Subclass E9.056: Chroma key (EPO)
Subclass E7.012: Involving interpolation processes (EPO)
Subclass E7.013: Involving the use of motion vectors (EPO)
Subclass E7.014: Dependent on presence/absence of motion, e.g., of motion zones (EPO)
Subclass E7.015: One of the standards corresponding to a cinematograph film standard (EPO)
Subclass E7.016: One of the standards being a high definition standard (EPO)
Subclass E3.045: With calculating means (EPO)
Subclass E5.004: Involving conditional access (EPO)
Subclass E5.005: Transport demultiplexing therefor (EPO)
Subclass E5.007: Involving digital storage medium interfacing (EPO)
Subclass E5.009: Synchronizing (EPO)
Subclass E5.021: Whereby the synchronization signal indirectly commands a frequency generator (EPO)
Subclass E5.055: Alteration of picture size, shape, position or orientation, e.g., zooming, rotation, rolling, perspective, translation (EPO)
Subclass E5.059: Generation of keying signals (EPO)
Subclass E5.062: Picture signal circuitry for video frequency region (EPO)
Subclass E5.066: Movement estimation (EPO)
Subclass E5.073: Circuitry for controlling amplitude response (EPO)
Subclass E5.076: For compensating for attenuation of high frequency components, e.g., crispening, aperture distortion correction (EPO)
Subclass E5.078: In picture signal generation (EPO)
Subclass E5.099: For displaying additional information (EPO)
Subclass E5.11: For flicker reduction (EPO)
Subclass E5.121: In dependence upon beam current of cathode ray tube (EPO)

Class 327: Miscellaneous Active Electrical Nonlinear Devices, Circuits, And Systems

This is the residual class for electrical devices, circuits or systems having an output not directly proportional to its input and comprising at least one component which can provide gain or can route electrical current and which device, circuit or system does not form a complete system such as is classified specifically elsewhere or a subcombination of utility only in such elsewhere classified system.

Subclass 155: With feedback
Subclass 163: By phase

Class 331: Oscillators

This is the generic class for electrical oscillators.

Subclass 1A: AFC with logic elements
Subclass 20: T.V. sync type

Class 370: Multiplex Communications

This is the generic class for multiplexing or duplexing systems, methods, or apparatus.

Subclass 345: Combining or distributing information via time channels
Subclass 394: Sequencing or resequencing of packets to insure proper output sequence order
Subclass 412: Queuing arrangement
Subclass 429: Particular storing and queuing arrangement
Subclass 487: Combined communication of diverse information types
Subclass 535: Multiplexing combined with demultiplexing
Subclass 536: Demultiplexing single signal into plural parallel channels (e.g., parallel transmission for increasing transmission speed)
Subclass 542: Demultiplexing single input channel to plural output channels

Class 714: Error Detection/Correction And Fault Detection/Recovery

This class provides for process or apparatus for detecting and correcting errors in electrical pulse or pulse coded data; it also provides for process or apparatus for detecting and recovering from faults in electrical computers and digital data processing systems, as well as logic level based systems.

Subclass 775: Synchronization
Subclass 798: Error detection for synchronization control
Subclass 812: Specified digital signal or pulse count

Class 358: Facsimile And Static Presentation Processing

Communication or reproduction of a static image or sequence of static images in which the local light, or density variations composing the image do not vary with time by a method or apparatus involving at least one of the following steps: (1) scanning a static image to capture an image-containing area by resolving it into an area; (2) communication of an image-representative signal or image-representative data over any supporting communication network; or (3) reproduction of an image-containing area in response to an image-representative signal or image-representative image data by reproducing a corresponding image area which at least one of the two dimensions is elemental, simultaneously or in a sequence. In this class, a facsimile system or method is a system or method for the communication or reproduction of an arbitrarily composed image in which the local light, or density variations composing the image do not vary with time, such as documents maps, charts, photographs, etc., but not motion picture film or video.

Subclass 3.03: Error diffusion in gray level or halftone generation
Subclass 447: Signal enhancing
Subclass 463: Noise elimination
Subclass 522: With histogram
Subclass 532: Sharpness emphasizing

Class 715: Data Processing: Presentation Processing Of Document

This class provides for data processing means or steps wherein a) human perceptible elements of electronic information (i.e., text or graphics) are gathered, associated, created, formatted, edited, prepared, or otherwise processed in forming a unified collection of such information storable as a distinct entity, b) a users interaction with a computer system is used to control the presentation of display data; such interaction is interpreted and used by a data processor or computer architecture wherein system level elements of computation or data processing techniques are used prior to use with or in a specific display system, or c) a small program takes over a display screen if there are no keystrokes or mouse movements for a specified duration.

Subclass 716: On screen video or audio system interface
Subclass 764: On-screen workspace or object
Subclass 788: Layout modification (e.g., move or resize)

Class 380: Cryptography

Equipment and processes which (a) conceal or obscure intelligible information by transforming such information so as to make the information unintelligible to a casual or unauthorized recipient, or (b) extract intelligible information from such a concealed representation, including breaking of unknown codes and messages.

Subclass 201: Copy protection or prevention
Subclass 210: Video electric signal modification (e.g., scrambling)
Subclass 238: Including frequency modification of audio signal or frequency shifting of audio carrier
Subclass 241: Having program ID or authorization

Class 386: Television Signal Processing For Dynamic Recording Or Reproducing

Apparatus and corresponding processes for processing a sequence of images, in which the light variation composing the images may change with time for dynamic recording or reproducing of the sequence of images. The processing involves the following steps: (a) Receiving a sequence of images from a local (e.g., camera, etc.) or remote source (e.g. broadcasting station, satellite, cable, etc.); (b) Converting the received sequence of images into a form suitable for dynamic storage, which form may or may not be reproduced later; or (c) Converting retrieved information from a dynamic storage medium into a sequence of images.

Class 725: Interactive Video Distribution Systems

This class contains interactive video distribution processes, systems, and elements thereof, which are characterized by point-to-multipoint system configurations, and which are used for the unidirectional distribution or delivery of motion video data resulting from interactions between systems operators (access or service providers) or users (subscribers) and systems elements. These systems include dedicated communications systems, such as television distribution systems, which primarily distribute or deliver motion video data in the manner indicated, but which may, in addition, provide a framework for further, diverse data communications or services in either unidirectional or bidirectional form. Typically, system operators interface with transmitter-side elements or users interface with receiver-side elements in order to facilitate, through interaction with such elements, the dynamic control of data processing or data flow at various points in the systems. This interaction is typically occasional or intermittent in nature.

Subclass 20: By data encoded in video signal (e.g., VBI data)
Subclass 38: To facilitate tuning or selection of video signal
Subclass 48: Combined from plural information providers (e.g., combined terrestrial and satellite sources)
Subclass 59: Selecting from multiple inputs or sources

Class 708: Electrical Computers: Arithmetic Processing And Calculating

This is the generic class for electrical apparatus and corresponding methods for performing calculation operations. There are three main divisions: 1. electrical hybrid calculating computers; 2. electrical digital calculating computers; 3. electrical analog calculating computers.

Subclass 321: Nontime domain

Class 365: Static Information Storage And Retrieval

Apparatus or corresponding processes for the static storage and retrieval of information. For classification herein, the storage system must be (1) static, (2) a singular storage element or plural elements of the same type, (3) addressable.

Subclass 185.03: Multiple values (e.g., analog)
Subclass 148: Resistive
Subclass 174: Semiconductive
Subclass 208: Semiconductors

Class 702: Data Processing:Measuring, Calibrating, Or Testing

This class provides for apparatus and corresponding methods wherein the data processing system or calculating computer is designed for or utilized in an environment relating to a specific or generic measurement system, a calibration or correction system, or a testing system.

Subclass 19: Biological or biochemical

Class 341: Coded Data Generation Or Conversion

1) originating or emitting a coded set of discrete signals or 2) translating one code into another code wherein the information signal content remains the same but the formats may differ. For classification herein, at least one of the codes must be a set of pulses or digits and electrical in nature.

Subclass 51: Adaptive coding
Subclass 67: To or from variable length codes

Class 356: Optics: Measuring And Testing

Methods and apparatus (1) for analyzing light to measure or test its characteristics, such as intensity, color and polarization; (2) for determining the optical or nonoptical properties of materials or articles by noting, as by inspection, measurement, or test the effect produced by the materials or articles on light associated therewith; and (3) for measuring the dimensions of structures or the spatial relationships such as distances or angle bearings of spaced points by comparison of the respective properties (usually direction or spatial position) of the light from these points or by comparison of the properties of these lights with some scale or standard. The light analyzing includes or is for spectroscopy, interference, polarization, beam direction or pattern, focal position of a light source, shade or color, and photometers. The material or article properties determined are or involve crystal or gem examination, material strain analysis, blood analysis, optical pyrometers, egg candling, cutting blade sharpness, oil testing, document verification, flatness, lens or reflector testing, refraction testing, monitoring moving webs or fabrics, light transmission or absorption, light reflection, inspection for flaws or imperfections in materials, and thread counting. The dimensioning and spatial relationship determination includes triangulation by a light beam, contour plotting, range or height finders, motion stopping, velocity or velocity/height measuring, sighting where the optical element or reticle moves with the sighted object, particle size determination, particle light scattering, electrophoresis, angle measuring or axial alignment, mensuration or configuration comparison, alignment in a lateral direction, and fiducial instruments.

Subclass 407: With sample responsive to plural colors applied simultaneously

Class 710: Electrical Computers And Digital Data Processing Systems: Input/Output

This class provides, within a computer or digital data processing system with the following processes or apparatus for 1. transferring data from one or more peripherals to one or more computers or digital data processing systems for the latter to process, store, or further transfer or for transferring data from the computers or digital data processing systems to the peripherals; 2. for interconnecting or communicating between two or more components connected to an interconnection medium (e.g., a bus) within a single computer or digital data processing system; 3. for preventing access to a shared resource of a computer or digital data processing system; 4. for granting access to a shared resource of a computer of digital data processing system by one of a plurality of components of the computer or digital data processing system by interrogating each of the components in a predetermined order; 5. for determining which of a plurality of components of a computer or digital data processing system contending for access to a shared resource shall be granted access at any one time based upon a predetermined criteria; and 6. for stopping, halting, or suspending a current processing function within a computer or digital data processing system.

Subclass 48: Input/Output interrupting
Subclass 261: Multimode interrupt processing
Subclass 262: Interrupt inhibiting or masking
Subclass 263: Interrupt queuing
Subclass 264: Interrupt prioritizing
Subclass 265: Variable
Subclass 266: Programmable interrupt processing

Class 713: Electrical Computers And Digital Processing Systems: Support

Subclass 401: Using delay
Subclass 502: Counting, scheduling, or event timing