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Patent Summary

U.S. Patent Classes & Classifications Covered in this listing:

Class 340: Communications: Electrical

Communications - the handling of information or intelligence, restricted to the conveying of said information or intelligence between geographically spaced points. Information or intelligence is defined as being, matter which is handled by signaling systems or signaling devices (such as telegraph systems) or by that portion of nonsignaling systems or nonsignaling devices (such as power supply systems) which is designated in the arts as having a control function (such as the supervisory circuits which control the circuit breakers of an electric power network). Handling, as used above, is defined as being the active coaction between the tangible communication system or device and the intangible information or intelligence, and such coaction may assume various forms, such as transmission, storage, exhibiting, etc.

Subclass 584: Thermal
Subclass 635: Condition of electrical apparatus

Class 361: Electricity: Electrical Systems And Devices

Systems or devices which provide safety and protection for other systems and devices; control circuits for electromagnetic devices and non-electromagnetic-type relays. Systems or devices which discharge, or prevent the accumulation of electrical charge on or in an object or material; circuits for charging objects or materials. Systems for generating or conducting an electric charge. Systems which process electrical speed signals. Circuits for reversing the polarity of an electric circuit. Systems which cause the ignition of a fuel or an explosive charge. Systems and processes for demagnetizing a magnetic field. Transformers and inductors with integral switch, capacitor or lock. Electrostatic capacitors, per se. Housings and mounting assemblies with plural diverse electrical components. Electrolytic systems and devices.

Subclass 692: Plural Openings
Subclass 695: Fan or blower
Subclass 707: Through support means
Subclass 727: Sliding component or commpartment
Subclass 788: Having backplane connection

Class 454: Ventilation

This is the parent class for apparatus and processes for supplying air to and removing it from enclosures, for distributing and circulating the air therein, or for preventing its contamination.


Class G9B/33.038:

Class 710: Electrical Computers And Digital Data Processing Systems: Input/Output

This class provides, within a computer or digital data processing system with the following processes or apparatus for 1. transferring data from one or more peripherals to one or more computers or digital data processing systems for the latter to process, store, or further transfer or for transferring data from the computers or digital data processing systems to the peripherals; 2. for interconnecting or communicating between two or more components connected to an interconnection medium (e.g., a bus) within a single computer or digital data processing system; 3. for preventing access to a shared resource of a computer or digital data processing system; 4. for granting access to a shared resource of a computer of digital data processing system by one of a plurality of components of the computer or digital data processing system by interrogating each of the components in a predetermined order; 5. for determining which of a plurality of components of a computer or digital data processing system contending for access to a shared resource shall be granted access at any one time based upon a predetermined criteria; and 6. for stopping, halting, or suspending a current processing function within a computer or digital data processing system.

Subclass 9: Address assignment
Subclass 12: As input or output
Subclass 15: Peripheral monitoring
Subclass 18: Activity monitoring
Subclass 22: Direct Memory Accessing (DMA)
Subclass 23: Programmed control memory accessing
Subclass 24: By command chaining
Subclass 48: Input/Output interrupting
Subclass 52: Input/Output data buffering
Subclass 58: Input/Output process timing
Subclass 62: Peripheral adapting
Subclass 65: Input/Output data modification
Subclass 66: Width conversion
Subclass 300: Bus expansion or extension
Subclass 301: Card insertion
Subclass 302: Hot insertion
Subclass 303: Docking station
Subclass 104: System configuring
Subclass 305: Bus interface architecture
Subclass 307: Variable or multiple bus width

Class 714: Error Detection/Correction And Fault Detection/Recovery

This class provides for process or apparatus for detecting and correcting errors in electrical pulse or pulse coded data; it also provides for process or apparatus for detecting and recovering from faults in electrical computers and digital data processing systems, as well as logic level based systems.

Subclass 10: Of processor
Subclass 22: With power supply status monitoring
Subclass 23: Resetting processor
Subclass 30: Built-in hardware for diagnosing or testing within-system component (e.g., microprocessor test mode circuit, scan path)
Subclass 31: Additional processor for in-system fault locating (e.g., distributed diagnosis program)
Subclass 37: Analysis (e.g., of output, state, or design)
Subclass 55: Timing error (e.g., watchdog timer time-out)

Class 438: Semiconductor Device Manufacturing: Process

This class provides for manufacturing a semiconductor containing a solid-state device for the following purposes: (a) conducting or modifying an electrical current, (b) storing electrical energy for subsequent discharge within a microelectronic integrated circuit, or (c) converting electromagnetic wave energy to electrical energy or electrical energy to electromagnetic energy. Also operations involving: (1) coating a substrate with a semiconductive material, or (2) coating a semiconductive substrate or substrate containing a semiconductive region. It also provides for operations involving etching a semiconductive substrate or etching a substrate containing a semiconductive region. The class provides for packaging or treatment of packaged semiconductor.

Subclass 118: Including adhesive bonding step
Subclass 121: Metallic housing or support
Subclass 125: Insulative housing or support
Subclass 281: Having fuse or integral short
Subclass 57: Responsive to electromagnetic radiation
Subclass 599: With electrical circuit layout
Subclass 618: Contacting multiple semiconductive regions (i.e., interconnects)
Subclass 624: Separating insulating layer is laminate or composite of plural insulating materials
Subclass 637: With formation of opening (i.e., viahole) in insulative layer
Subclass 672: Plug formation (i.e., in viahole)
Subclass 69: Including integrally formed optical element (e.g., reflective layer, luminescent layer, etc.)
Subclass 70: Color filter
Subclass 700: Formation of groove or trench
Subclass 738: Selectively etching substrate possessing multiple layers of differing etch characteristics
Subclass 780: Depositing organic material (e.g., polymer, etc.)

Class 257: Active Solid-State Devices (E.G., Transistors, Solid-State Diodes)

This class provides for active solid-state electronic devices, that is, electronic devices or components that are made up primarily of solid materials, usually semiconductors, which operate by the movement of charge carriers - electrons or holes - which undergo energy level changes within the material and can modify an input voltage to achieve rectification, amplification, or switching action, and are not classified elsewhere.

Subclass 233: Sensors not overlaid by electrode (e.g., photodiodes)
Subclass 292: Photodiodes accessed by FETs
Subclass 293: Photoresistors accessed by FETs, or photodetectors separate from FET chip
Subclass 294: With shield, filter, or lens
Subclass 327: Short channel insulated gate field effect transistor
Subclass 368: Insulated gate field effect transistor in integrated circuit
Subclass 382: With contact to source or drain region of refractory material (e.g., polysilicon, tungsten, or silicide)
Subclass 435: With optical shield or mask means
Subclass 440: With different sensor portions responsive to different wavelengths (e.g., color imager)
Subclass 462: Phototransistor
Subclass 465: Geometric configuration of junction (e.g., fingers)
Subclass 650: Insulating layer of glass
Subclass 751: At least one layer forms a diffusion barrier
Subclass 759: Including organic insulating material between metal levels
Subclass 760: Separating insulating layer is laminate or composite of plural insulating materials (e.g., silicon oxide on silicon nitride, silicon oxynitride)
Subclass 762: At least one layer containing silver or copper
Subclass 763: At least one layer of molybdenum, titanium, or tungsten
Subclass 774: Via (interconnection hole) shape
Subclass E21.261: Layer comprising polysiloxane compound (EPO)
Subclass E21.262: Layer comprising hydrogen silsesquioxane (EPO)
Subclass E21.324: Thermal treatment for modifying the properties of semiconductor body, e.g., annealing, sintering (EPO)
Subclass E21.507: Formation of contacts to semiconductor by use of metal layers separated by insulating layers, e.g., self-aligned contacts to source/drain or emitter/base (EPO)
Subclass E21.576: Characterized by formation and post treatment of dielectrics, e.g., planarizing (EPO)
Subclass E21.577: By forming via holes (EPO)
Subclass E23.145: Via connections in multilevel interconnection structure (EPO)
Subclass E23.167: Insulating materials (EPO)
Subclass E27.016: In combination with diode, resistor, or capacitor (EPO)
Subclass E27.128: With at least one potential barrier or surface barrier (EPO)
Subclass E27.132: Pixel-elements with integrated switching, control, storage, or amplification elements (EPO)
Subclass E27.134: Color imager (EPO)
Subclass E29.255: With field effect produced by insulated gate (EPO)

Class 430: Radiation Imagery Chemistry: Process, Composition, Or Product Thereof

This is the generic class for: (1) Forming the likeness of an object, or an instrumented or discernible phenomenon, in a chemically defined receiver or in a receiver wherein radiation produces a chemical reaction, by use of radiation. (2) Finishing an image by chemical processing regardless how formed. (3) A radiation sensitive receiver, composition, or product disclosed solely for radiation imagery chemistry, and process of making same. (4) A nonradiation sensitive-receiver, composition, or product. (5) An imaged product by a process or employing a receiver, composition, or product.

Subclass 320: Making named article

Class 428: Stock Material Or Miscellaneous Articles

This is the residual class for: 1. Stock material in the form of a structurally defined web, sheet, rod, strand, fiber, filament, cell, flake, particle not provided elsewhere. 2. Stock material in the form of a web, sheet, mass or layer which consists of or contains a structurally defined constituent or element. 3. A nonstructural laminate defined merely in terms of the composition of one or more layers. 4. An article of manufacture or an intermediate-article not provided for elsewhere. 5. A process for applying an impregnating material to a naturally solid product such as a wood beam, a sheet of leather or a stone, or for applying a coating to a base, and which process includes no significant method step.

Subclass 32.26: Hardened, cured, or cross-linked ink receptive layer
Subclass 32.28: Modified polyvinyl alcohol ink receptive layer
Subclass 32.29: Quaternary ammonium compound ink receptive layer

Class 347: Incremental Printing Of Symbolic Information

Processes and apparatus for conveying information by selectively creating on a medium a visibly distinguishable symbol or mark composed of a plurality of portions; created portion by portion as, for example, by pixels or dots. The symbol or mark may be an alphanumeric character or an image.

Subclass 105: Receiving medium
Subclass 57: Drive signal application
Subclass 58: Wiring
Subclass 59: Integrated
Subclass 61: Thermal force generators
Subclass 65: Flow path
Subclass 87: With integral ejector

Class 250: Radiant Energy

This class provides for all methods and apparatus for using, generating, controlling or detecting radiant energy, combinations including such methods or apparatus, subcombinations of same and accessories therefore not classifiable elsewhere.

Subclass 208.1: Plural photosensitive image detecting element arrays
Subclass 216: Optical or pre-photocell system
Subclass 492.2: Irradiation of semiconductor devices
Subclass 556: Document verification or graph reader

Class 382: Image Analysis

This is the generic class for apparatus and corresponding methods for the automated analysis of an image or recognition of a pattern. Included herein are systems that transform an image for the purpose of (a) enhancing its visual quality prior to recognition, (b) locating and registering the image relative to a sensor or stored prototype, or reducing the amount of image data by discarding irrelevant data, and (c) measuring significant characteristics of the image.

Subclass 127: With a prism
Subclass 176: Distinguishing text from other regions
Subclass 211: With electrically controlled light modulator or filter
Subclass 235: Substantial processing of image in compressed form
Subclass 239: Adaptive coding (i.e., changes based upon history, activity, busyness, etc.)
Subclass 244: Lossless compression
Subclass 251: Quantization
Subclass 289: Determining amount an image is rotated or skewed
Subclass 291: Determining the position of an object
Subclass 293: Changing the image coordinates
Subclass 295: To position or translate an image
Subclass 296: To rotate an image

Class 349: Liquid Crystal Cells, Elements And Systems

Cells, elements, and systems which include molecules of a material having both liquid and crystalline properties. Included in this class are those which have a significant liquid crystal cell detail or liquid crystal response or properties, and in which the liquid crystal controls or changes the optical properties of electromagnetic radiation such as direction, phase, amplitude, frequency, or polarization state. This class also provides for nominal manufacturing methods for producing significant liquid crystal cell structure.

Subclass 74: Interconnection of plural cells in series
Subclass 117: Compensator or retarder (i.e., not using liquid crystal cell)
Subclass 121: With particular non-zero angle between compensator optical axis and orientation direction
Subclass 122: Particular nonoptical film or layer (e.g., adhesive layer, barrier layer)
Subclass 138: Insulating layer

Class 719: Electrical Computers And Digital Processing Systems: Interprogram Communication Or Interprocess Communication (Ipc)

This class provides for an electrical computer or digital data processing system or corresponding data processing method including apparatus or steps for exchanging data or messages between two executing programs or processes, independent of the hardware used in the communication.


Class 396: Photography

Photographic apparatus, generally for recording a picture made by a source of light on a photographic medium. It includes fluid-treating apparatus for development of film, a removable film-holder unit, hood, camera housing, camera setting indicator and certain accessories related to photography not otherwise provided for such as studio structure, camera mounting or rest, camera attachment, retouching, or burnishing device. Non-chemical processes involving photographic apparatus are included in this class.

Subclass 287: Nonmechanical visual display
Subclass 299: Manual manipulators on camera body unit
Subclass 85: Power zoom
Subclass 88: Having indicator

Class 365: Static Information Storage And Retrieval

Apparatus or corresponding processes for the static storage and retrieval of information. For classification herein, the storage system must be (1) static, (2) a singular storage element or plural elements of the same type, (3) addressable.

Subclass 189.04: Simultaneous operations (e.g., read/write)
Subclass 203: Precharge

Class 711: Electrical Computers And Digital Processing Systems: Memory

This class provides, within an electrical computer or digital data processing system, for the following processes and apparatus 1. for addressing memory wherein the processes and apparatus involve significant address manipulating (e.g., combining, translating, or mapping and other techniques for formatting and modifying address data) and are combined with specific memory configurations or memory systems; 2. for accessing and controlling memory (e.g., transferring and modifying address data, selecting storage devices, scheduling access); and 3. for forming memory addresses (e.g., virtual memory addressing, address translating, translation-lookaside buffers (TLBs), boundary checking, and page mode).

Subclass 118: Caching
Subclass 130: Shared cache
Subclass 133: Entry replacement strategy
Subclass 137: Look-ahead
Subclass 141: Coherency
Subclass 144: Cache status data bit
Subclass 145: Access control bit
Subclass 154: Control technique

Class 235: Registers

Machines employed for ascertaining the number of movements of various devices or machines; also, indicating devices where the purpose is to disclose the numerical extent or quantity of movement of a machine and where the device is separate and independent of the machine whose movements are to be noted; also organized machines, such as, cash-registers, fare-registers, voting machines and calculators having registering or counting devices as essential or important elements and having in addition certain other features necessary to make up the complete machines for the purposes desired.

Subclass 462.25: Reader processing circuitry
Subclass 462.41: Using an imager (e.g., CCD)

Class 342: Communications: Directive Radio Wave Systems And Devices (E.G., Radar, Radio Navigation)

Systems and processes for transmission or reception of radio wave energy for obtaining or utilizing information (using radio wave transmitters or receivers), as to an object, or as to the directional characteristics of the radio wave energy, per se. his class includes radar systems wherein radio wave energy from a transmitter is reflected or otherwise returned from an object to a receiver which may be at the same location as the transmitter; includes subsystems, components, and related processes which are limited to use in connection with the above. This class is limited to electromagnetic radio frequency waves in the radiation field.

Class 701: Data Processing:Vehicles, Navigation, And Relative Location

This class provides for electrical computers, digital data processing systems, and data processing processes for transferring data between computers or processes wherein the computers or processes employ the data before or after transferring and the employing affects the transfer of data therebetween. This class is for electricalapparatus and corresponding methods for performing data processing operations in which there is a significant change in the data or for performing calculation operations wherein the electrical data processing system or calculating computer functions to indicate a condition of a vehicle, to regulate the movement of a vehicle, to monitor the operation of a vehicle, or to solve a diagnostic problem with the vehicle. It also provides electrical apparatus and corresponding methods wherein the electrical data processing system or calculating computer function to determine the course, position, or distance traveled. It further provides electrical apparatus and corresponding methods wherein the electrical data processing system or calculating computer functions to determine the relative location of an object (e.g., person or vehicle) and may include communication of the determined relative location to a remote location. In this class there are three main divisions: 1. vehicle control, guidance, operation or indication; 2. navigation; 3. relative location

Class 370: Multiplex Communications

This is the generic class for multiplexing or duplexing systems, methods, or apparatus.

Subclass 206: Quadrature carriers
Subclass 210: Fourier transform
Subclass 311: Signaling for performing battery saving
Subclass 331: Hand-off control
Subclass 332: Based upon a particular signal quality measurement
Subclass 338: Contiguous regions interconnected by a local area network
Subclass 346: Polling
Subclass 352: Combined circuit switching and packet switching
Subclass 471: Message having an address header

Class 375: Pulse Or Digital Communications

This is the generic class for pulse or digital communication systems using electrical or electromagnetic signals. Such communication includes transmitting an intelligence bearing signal from one point to another in the form of discrete variations in some parameter of the electrical or electromagnetic signal.

Subclass 260: Plural channels for transmission of a single pulse train
Subclass 348: Intersymbol interference
Subclass E7.13: Iterative methods (EPO)
Subclass E7.134: Target code amount (EPO)
Subclass E7.138: Encoding parameters processing, e.g., initialization, alteration, compression (EPO)
Subclass E7.139: Quantizer (EPO)
Subclass E7.153: Rate distortion criteria (EPO)
Subclass E7.167: Visual quality (EPO)
Subclass E7.181: Picture (EPO)

Class 712: Electrical Computers And Digital Processing Systems: Processing Architectures And Instruction Processing (E.G., Processors)

This class provides, within a computer or digital data processing system, for subject matter represented by a particular arrangement that includes at least one of the following means: 1. components of an individual complete processor, which may be formed on a single integrated circuit (IC); 2. components of a complete digital data processing system; 3. plural processors; or 4. plural digital data processing systems; wherein the particular arrangement further includes at least one of the following functions: (a) processing instruction data for specific processor architectures; (b) accessing or retrieving instruction data of a fixed or variable length from a buffer or other memory and shifting the instruction data to align it with a physical boundary of a buffer or other memory; (c) locating and retrieving instruction data for processing; (d) determining via internal hardware, firmware or software operations the meaning of operation codes, control bits, or operands of instruction data; (e) dispatching instruction data for execution (e.g., designating a register after resolving data conflicts); (f) dynamically testing instruction data and operands to assess conflicts related to data or hardware-resource availability (e.g., identifying data dependencies or utilization conflicts, attempting to resolve such dependencies or conflicts, or both); and (g) dynamically controlling the execution, processing, or sequencing of instruction data within a processor.

Subclass 14: Processing element memory
Subclass 22: Single instruction, multiple data (SIMD)
Subclass 225: Processing control for data transfer
Subclass 228: Context preserving (e.g., context swapping, checkpointing, register windowing
Subclass 41: RISC
Subclass E9.027: Organization of register space, e.g., distributed register files, register banks (EPO)
Subclass E9.032: For specific instructions not covered by the preceding groups, e.g., halt, synchronize (EPO)
Subclass E9.053: From multiple instruction streams, e.g., multistreaming (EPO)

Class 292: Closure Fasteners

Bolt elements and latching devices, not combined with lock structure, for securing in closed or adjusted position any closure element, such as a door, window, gate, trunk-lid, box-cover, bag-frame, or the like.

Subclass 18: Swinging
Subclass 209: Spring-arm catch

Class 312: Supports: Cabinet Structure

Receptacles or enclosures, combined with article supporting means such as drawers, racks, shelves, etc., fixed or movable partly or wholly out of the enclosure to make the article supported more readily accessible, and enclosures combined with any nonreceptacle feature.


Class 708: Electrical Computers: Arithmetic Processing And Calculating

This is the generic class for electrical apparatus and corresponding methods for performing calculation operations. There are three main divisions: 1. electrical hybrid calculating computers; 2. electrical digital calculating computers; 3. electrical analog calculating computers.

Subclass 551: Round off or truncation

Class 400: Typewriting Machines

This is the generic class for an apparatus wherein a user of the apparatus causes an intelligible character* to be imprinted on a record-medium* by a type-member* that is impressed on the record-medium, said type-member being selected from a plurality of different type-members, and the selected type-members being impressed serially to form a sequence of characters that record intelligible information.

Subclass 659: Cylindrical platen

Class 101: Printing

Means not otherwise provided for adapted to produce characters or designs on surfaces by impression of types or dies or by applying coating material thereto through openings of previous portions of a pattern sheet, as in stenciling, or by impression from planos:graphic or intaglio surfaces.

Subclass 474: Work held on flat surface

Class 248: Supports

Devices which carry the weight of an article or articles or otherwise hold or steady it or them against the pull of gravity, and devices for holding an article to its support, which are not otherwise provided for.

Subclass 363: VACUUM

Class 269: Work Holders

A device which, during a work treating operation, contacts a workpiece for the purpose of (a) supporting the work against the force of gravity; or (b) preventing movement of the work in a particular direction or in all directions while, as disclosed, such work is supported against the force of gravity; or (c) providing a surface juxtaposed to the work for constraining the motion of a tool during its performance of such work treating operation. Holding articles together so that (by disclosure) a glue, cement or adhesive may set and secure said articles together is considered to be a work holding operation for this class. Thus a clamp or vise, disclosed for use by cabinet makers, carpenters, woodworkers, etc., to hold plural pieces together while an adhesive sets, is properly classifiable in this class.

Subclass 21: Vacuum-type holding means

Class 271: Sheet Feeding Or Delivering

Means for moving an individual sheet from a stack of sheets or positioning the individual sheet with respect to a location where the sheet is operated upon or moving or positioning the individual sheet after having been operated upon.

Subclass 194: By pneumatic conveyor
Subclass 276: Including pneumatic means

Class 707: Data Processing:Database And File Management Or Data Structures

This is the generic class for data processing apparatus and corresponding methods for the retrieval of data stored in a database or as computer files. It provides for data processing means or steps for generic data, file and directory upkeeping, file naming, and file and database maintenance including integrity consideration, recovery, and versioning. There are three main divisions: 1. database and file accessing; 2. database schema and data structure; 3. file and database maintenance.

Subclass E17.012: Trees (EPO)
Subclass E17.067: Using document space presentation or visualization, e.g., category, hierarchy or range presentation and selection, etc. (EPO)

Class 700: Data Processing: Generic Control Systems Or Specific Applications

This class is structured into two main divisions: (1)for the combination of a data processing or calculating computer apparatus (or corresponding methods for performing data processing or calculating operations) AND a device or apparatus controlled thereby, the entirety hereinafter referred to as a "control system". (2)for data processing or calculating computer apparatus (or corresponding methods for performing data processing or calculating operations) wherein the data processing or calculating computer apparatus is designed for or utilized in a particular art device, system, process, or environment, or is utilized for the solution of a particular problem in a field other than mathematics (arithmetic processing per se is classified elsewhere).

Subclass 94: Digital audio data processing system

Class 381: Electrical Audio Signal Processing Systems And Devices

This class provides for: (a) wired one-way electrical transmission or processing systems for audio signals, (b) Stereophonic systems, which are not elsewhere classified, (c) instrument or process for converting an electrical audio information signal to or from humanly audible form.

Subclass 119: WITH MIXER

Class 360: Dynamic Magnetic Information Storage Or Retrieval

This class is an integral part of Class 369, Dynamic Information Storage or Retrieval, and is the specific class for apparatus and corresponding processes for the storage and retrieval of information based on relative movement between a magnetic record carrier and a transducer. It includes apparatus and corresponding processes for making copies or editing of records falling within the above definition. A magnetic record carrier within the meaning of this class is an element which consists of a magnetizable material or is comprised of a coating or impregnation of magnetizable material which is intended for the storage of more than a single bit of information.

Subclass 53: Data verification
Subclass 77.06: Reproduced data signal used for tracking
Subclass 77.12: Elongated web carrier (i.e., tape)

Class 369: Dynamic Information Storage Or Retrieval

Apparatus for the storage or retrieval of arbitrarily variable information which is retained in a storage medium by variation of a physical characteristic. The information is stored or retrieved by causing or sensing a variation of a physical characteristic of the storage medium by a transducer having relative motion along a continuous path.


Class G9B/19.005:

Class G9B/20.046:

Class G9B/21.018:

Class G9B/27.052:

Class G9B/5.217:

Class G9B/5.227:

Class 713: Electrical Computers And Digital Processing Systems: Support

Subclass 193: By stored data protection
Subclass 2: Loading initialization program (e.g., booting, rebooting, warm booting, remote booting, BIOS, initial program load (IPL), bootstrapping)
Subclass 320: Power conservation
Subclass 323: Active/idle mode processing

Class 216: Etching A Substrate: Processes

Chemical etching processes for treating articles of commerce or intermediate articles not otherwise provided for in which one of the manufacturing steps includes a chemical etching step (use of an etchant) and wherein the material treated is not completely removed.


Class 353: Optics: Image Projectors

Projectors for particular types of objects to be projected; such as maps and aerial photographs, targets, transparent plates, information data, microscopic objects, scales and indicators, and stencils or perforated plates. Various other species and types of projectors are also included here such as kaleidoscopic, heliostats, stereoscopic and relief, pointers, gun type, moving images on screens, episcopes and cabinets including screens. Various plural and composite types of projectors are included such as projectors involving plural projected images including multicolor, projectors for images combined with real objects, projectors with manual delineation, and plural projection with a single light source. Projectors selective at the operators choice are also included as where the selection is between a slide and a film strip, between a cabinet and a distant screen, and between opaque and transparency projection.

Subclass 98: REFLECTOR

Class 165: Heat Exchange

Apparatus or process not provided for in other classes for transferring heat, or apparatus or process not provided for in other classes relating to an auxiliary device particularly adapted to be used with such heat transfer apparatus.

Subclass 104.21: Utilizing change of state

Class 174: Electricity: Conductors And Insulators

This class is for inventions relating to the structure of electrical conductors and insulators and insulators and the apparatus specialized to mounting, supporting, encasing in conduits, and/or housing the same. Conductors may be bare or be encased in insulation, may be single strand or plural strand, may be of single conductor form or there may be a plurality of conductors associated together to form a cable. Since all materials that have the property of being conductors of electricity and all devices made therefrom may be termed electrical conductors, only those structures that are specially designed to conduct electricity as their proximate purpose are placed in this class. Insulators are placed here when the structure thereof is claimed, which structure is specially designed for spacing two or more devices of different electrical potential from each other or for spacing one or more devices from ground. Since all materials which are poor conductors of electricity and devices made therefrom may be termed electrical insulators, only those structures whose proximate purpose is that already stated. Conduits are placed in this class only when some characteristic is claimed which limits the same to the electrical use.

Subclass 117FF: Conductor itself is flat
Subclass 15.2: By heat pipe

Class 358: Facsimile And Static Presentation Processing

Communication or reproduction of a static image or sequence of static images in which the local light, or density variations composing the image do not vary with time by a method or apparatus involving at least one of the following steps: (1) scanning a static image to capture an image-containing area by resolving it into an area; (2) communication of an image-representative signal or image-representative data over any supporting communication network; or (3) reproduction of an image-containing area in response to an image-representative signal or image-representative image data by reproducing a corresponding image area which at least one of the two dimensions is elemental, simultaneously or in a sequence. In this class, a facsimile system or method is a system or method for the communication or reproduction of an arbitrarily composed image in which the local light, or density variations composing the image do not vary with time, such as documents maps, charts, photographs, etc., but not motion picture film or video.

Subclass 1.15: Communication
Subclass 1.9: Attribute control
Subclass 2.1: Processing based on at least two different image attributes (e.g., character, graphic, photo, line, edge, gray-level, color)
Subclass 407: Facsimile relay system
Subclass 440: Telephone number or address of designator
Subclass 448: Image processing
Subclass 453: Image portion selection
Subclass 474: Scanning
Subclass 496: Document moves during scanning
Subclass 497: Scanning element moves relative to a flat stationary document
Subclass 537: Image editing
Subclass 539: Image coding (encoder/decoder)

Class 455: Telecommunications

This is the generic class for modulated carrier wave communications not elsewhere classifiable.

Subclass 418: Programming control
Subclass 421: Out-of-range indication
Subclass 550.1: Radiotelephone equipment detail

Class 726: Information Security

This class provides, within a computer or digital data processing system, for processes or apparatus for increasing a system s extension of protection of system hardware, software, or data from maliciously caused destruction, unauthorized modification, or unauthorized disclosure. It provides for protection of data processing systems, apparatus, and methods as well as protection of information and services. Subject matter included in this class includes security policies, access control, monitoring, scanning data, countermeasures, usage control, and data protection from maliciously caused destruction, unauthorized modification, or unauthorized disclosure, and includes protection of hardware, and user protection, e.g., privacy, etc.

Subclass 19: Credential usage
Subclass 5: Credential

Class 439: Electrical Connectors

This is the generic class for a pair of mated conductors comprising at least two electrically conducting elements which are interconnected to permit relative motion of such conducting elements during use without a break in electrical conductivity therebetween. Also, this is the generic class for a device constituting an electricity conducting contact between conductors of electricity; wherein the joint is of a type which may be readily made and broken, repeatedly by attachment and detachment of contact supporting structure on each conductor.

Subclass 62: Panel mounted connector which receives edge of panel circuit
Subclass 660: Plural-contact coupling part comprises receptacle or plug

Class 716: Data Processing: Design And Analysis Of Circuit Or Semiconductor Mask

This class provides for electrical data processing apparatus and corresponding methods for the following subject matter: for sketching, designing, and analyzing circuit components; for planning, designing, analyzing, and devising a template used for etching circuit pattern on semiconductor wafers.

Class 326: Electronic Digital Logic Circuitry

This is the generic class for electronic digital logic devices, circuitry and subcombinations thereof, wherein non-arithmetical operations are performed upon discrete electrical signals representing a value normally described by numerical digits.

Subclass 26: Output switching noise reduction
Subclass 30: Bus or line termination (e.g., clamping, impedance matching, etc.)
Subclass 41: Significant integrated structure, layout, or layout interconnections
Subclass 87: Having plural output pull-up or pull-down transistors

Class 379: Telephonic Communications

(1) Systems, processes and instruments for the two-way electrical transmission of intelligible audio information having arbitrary content over a link including an electrical conductor, between spaced apart locations, so as to enable conversation therebetween, and intended for the private use of a listener or a group of listeners. The term "intelligible" used above is intended to include the capability for transmission of speech or the like (e.g., music), rather than restriction to a specified audible signal, such as a bell or buzzer. (2) Switching, signalling or signal transmission peculiar to, or specified as for a telephone or a telephone system, except for multiplex communications as indicated in Lines With Other Classes.

Subclass 100.09: Relay system
Subclass 100.14: Call signal generation (e.g., auto-dial)
Subclass 130: At subscriber station

Class 399: Electrophotography

Electrophotographically reproducing an original by the action of light directly from the original to a photoconductive member whose electrical conductivity, electrical charge, magnetic condition, or electrical emissivity of a photoconductive medium is selectively altered by the action of light to produce an electrostatic latent image which persists after imaging based upon differences in such electrical property. The latent image is made visible by development; and the developed image may be made permanent by transfer and fixing, or fixing.

Subclass 49: Having detection of toner (e.g., patch)

Class 380: Cryptography

Equipment and processes which (a) conceal or obscure intelligible information by transforming such information so as to make the information unintelligible to a casual or unauthorized recipient, or (b) extract intelligible information from such a concealed representation, including breaking of unknown codes and messages.

Subclass 201: Copy protection or prevention
Subclass 202: Having origin or program ID
Subclass 203: Having copy protect signal
Subclass 204: Modifying sync signal
Subclass 227: Record or coin controlled
Subclass 228: Including key on record
Subclass 229: Including authentication
Subclass 230: Including usage recording

Class 709: Electrical Computers And Digital Processing Systems: Multicomputer Data Transferring

This class provides for an electrical computer or digital data processing system or corresponding data processing method including apparatus or steps for transferring data or instruction information between a plurality of computers wherein the computers employ the data or instructions before or after transferring and the employing affects said transfer of data or instruction information. The class includes - process or apparatus for transferring data among a plurality of spatially distributed (i.e., situated, at plural locations) computers or digital data processing systems via one or more communications media (e.g., computer networks).

Subclass 201: Absolute value or magnitude
Subclass 202: Median
Subclass 203: Compression/decompression
Subclass 205: Normalization
Subclass 206: Unit conversion
Subclass 236: More than two operands

Class 318: Electricity: Motive Power Systems

This is the generic class for system of electrical supply and/or of control for one or more electric motors where the electric motor is claimed in combination with such systems of supply and/or control and the electric motor as claimed constitutes the ultimate and sole electrical load device supplied by the system or constitutes the ultimate and sole electrical device being controlled.

Subclass 297: Plural, diverse or diversely controlled field windings
Subclass 300: Field-circuit current reversed
Subclass 362: BRAKING
Subclass 369: Speed, acceleration, movement or position of motor or driven device

Class 388: Electricity: Motor Control Systems

This class and Class 318, Electricity: Motive Power Systems are the generic loci for systems of electrical control of electric motors. Currently types of motor covered are direct current (DC) commutating motor: An electric motor designed to operate on direct current and having a commutator electrically connected to a winding of the motor. Modes of motor control covered are: acceleration control, deceleration control and running speed control.

Class G9B/19.027:

Class 386: Television Signal Processing For Dynamic Recording Or Reproducing

Apparatus and corresponding processes for processing a sequence of images, in which the light variation composing the images may change with time for dynamic recording or reproducing of the sequence of images. The processing involves the following steps: (a) Receiving a sequence of images from a local (e.g., camera, etc.) or remote source (e.g. broadcasting station, satellite, cable, etc.); (b) Converting the received sequence of images into a form suitable for dynamic storage, which form may or may not be reproduced later; or (c) Converting retrieved information from a dynamic storage medium into a sequence of images.

Class 348: Television

Generating, processing, transmitting or transiently displaying a sequence of images, either locally or remotely, in which the local light variations composing the images may change with time.

Subclass E5.008: Multimedia server circuitry for digital video services (EPO)
Subclass E5.128: Constructional details of receivers, e.g., cabinets, dust covers (EPO)

Class G9B/33.032:

Class G9B/33.034:

Class 341: Coded Data Generation Or Conversion

1) originating or emitting a coded set of discrete signals or 2) translating one code into another code wherein the information signal content remains the same but the formats may differ. For classification herein, at least one of the codes must be a set of pulses or digits and electrical in nature.

Subclass 22: Including keyboard or keypad

Class 200: Electricity: Circuit Makers And Breakers

Combinations of circuit makers and breakers with electrical plugs, sockets, or other connectors are in this class. This class includes devices known as "controllers", "circuit-closers", "switches", "circuit-breakers", "interrupters", "distributers", "thermal-cut-offs", "fuses", and "electrical thermostats".


Class 345: Computer Graphics Processing And Selective Visual Display Systems

Processes and apparatus for selective electrical control of two or more light-generating or light-controlling display elements* in accordance with a received or stored image data signal. The image data includes character, graphical information or display attribute data. The image data may include, for example, information data from a peripheral input device, from the reception of a television signal, from the recognition of image data, or from the generation or creation of image data by a computer.

Subclass 168: Including keyboard

Class 718: Electrical Computers And Digital Processing Systems: Virtual Machine Task Or Process Management Or Task Management/Control

This class provides for an electrical computer or digital data processing system or corresponding data processing method including apparatus or steps for administrating over processor or job execution in a digital data processing system whether in a virtual machine or otherwise. Subject matter includes - virtual machine task or process management, and task management or control in general.


Class G9B/27.018:

Class 705: Data Processing:Financial, Business Practice, Management, Or Cost/Price Determination

This is the generic class for apparatus and corresponding methods for performing data processing operations, in which there is a significant change in the data or for performing calculation operations wherein the apparatus or method is uniquely designed for or utilized in the practice, administration, or management of an enterprise, or in the processing of financial data. It also provides for apparatus and corresponding methods for performing data processing or calculating operations in which a charge for goods or services is determined.

Subclass 51: Usage protection of distributed data files
Subclass 59: Licensing

Class 324: Electricity: Measuring And Testing

This is the residual home for all subject matter, not elsewhere classified, relating to the measuring, testing (or sensing) of electric properties, (e.g., determining ground resistivity, determining frequency of an alternating current, determining kilowatt hour demand), or the measuring, testing or sensing of nonelectric properties by electric means (e.g., determining moisture, a nonelectric property, by measuring conductance with a resistance bridge; determining speed, a nonelectric property by use of an electric tachometer).