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Patent Summary

U.S. Patent Classes & Classifications Covered in this listing:

Class 385: Optical Waveguides

(1) An optical waveguiding element, which conveys light from one point to another through an optically transparent elongated structure by modal transmission, total internal reflection, or total reflectorization. (2) A combination of an optical waveguiding element with an additional broadly recited optical element which couples light or a combination. (3) A combination of an optical waveguiding element with structure which mechanically joins this waveguiding element with another or with a diverse optical element. (4) An optical modulator where the modulation of a light wave characteristic is performed exclusively within an optical waveguiding element. (5) Other miscellaneous devices formed of an optical waveguide (e.g., a waveguide sensing device) and supplemental devices which are limited to use with an optical waveguide (e.g., an external clamp or retainer).

Class 257: Active Solid-State Devices (E.G., Transistors, Solid-State Diodes)

This class provides for active solid-state electronic devices, that is, electronic devices or components that are made up primarily of solid materials, usually semiconductors, which operate by the movement of charge carriers - electrons or holes - which undergo energy level changes within the material and can modify an input voltage to achieve rectification, amplification, or switching action, and are not classified elsewhere.

Class 359: Optical: Systems And Elements

Optical elements included in this class are: Lenses; Polarizers; Diffraction gratings; Prisms; Reflectors; Filters; Projection screens; Optical Modulators; Optical Demodulators. Among the optical systems included in this class are: Compound lens systems; Light reflecting signalling systems (e.g., retroreflectors); stereoscopic systems; Binocular devices; Systems of lenticular elements; Systems involving light interference; Glare reducing systems; Light dividing and combining systems; Light control systems (e.g., light valves); building illumination with natural light; Systems for protecting or shielding elements; Optical systems whose operation depends upon polarizing, diffracting, dispersing, reflecting, or refracting light; kaleidoscopes. Further included are certain apertures, closures, and viewing devices of a specialized nature which involve no intentional reflection, refraction, or filtering of light rays. This class also includes optical elements combined with another type of structure(s) to constitute an optical element combined with a nonoptical structure or a perfection or improvement in the optical element.

Class 348: Television

Generating, processing, transmitting or transiently displaying a sequence of images, either locally or remotely, in which the local light variations composing the images may change with time.

Class 353: Optics: Image Projectors

Projectors for particular types of objects to be projected; such as maps and aerial photographs, targets, transparent plates, information data, microscopic objects, scales and indicators, and stencils or perforated plates. Various other species and types of projectors are also included here such as kaleidoscopic, heliostats, stereoscopic and relief, pointers, gun type, moving images on screens, episcopes and cabinets including screens. Various plural and composite types of projectors are included such as projectors involving plural projected images including multicolor, projectors for images combined with real objects, projectors with manual delineation, and plural projection with a single light source. Projectors selective at the operators choice are also included as where the selection is between a slide and a film strip, between a cabinet and a distant screen, and between opaque and transparency projection.

Class 356: Optics: Measuring And Testing

Methods and apparatus (1) for analyzing light to measure or test its characteristics, such as intensity, color and polarization; (2) for determining the optical or nonoptical properties of materials or articles by noting, as by inspection, measurement, or test the effect produced by the materials or articles on light associated therewith; and (3) for measuring the dimensions of structures or the spatial relationships such as distances or angle bearings of spaced points by comparison of the respective properties (usually direction or spatial position) of the light from these points or by comparison of the properties of these lights with some scale or standard. The light analyzing includes or is for spectroscopy, interference, polarization, beam direction or pattern, focal position of a light source, shade or color, and photometers. The material or article properties determined are or involve crystal or gem examination, material strain analysis, blood analysis, optical pyrometers, egg candling, cutting blade sharpness, oil testing, document verification, flatness, lens or reflector testing, refraction testing, monitoring moving webs or fabrics, light transmission or absorption, light reflection, inspection for flaws or imperfections in materials, and thread counting. The dimensioning and spatial relationship determination includes triangulation by a light beam, contour plotting, range or height finders, motion stopping, velocity or velocity/height measuring, sighting where the optical element or reticle moves with the sighted object, particle size determination, particle light scattering, electrophoresis, angle measuring or axial alignment, mensuration or configuration comparison, alignment in a lateral direction, and fiducial instruments.

Class 362: Illumination

Means and processes for casting visible radiant energy in at least one direction to render objects in that direction visible.

Class 451: Abrading

The term "abrading" (grinding) may include a polishing device that acts by removal of an integral portion of the material acted upon, but not such as depends upon the application of a coating capable of taking a polish by friction or upon a compression, consolidation, or swaging of the material. Every invention relating to abrading must have to do either with an abrading element; a tool consisting of an abrading element or material and a holder by which it may be put to use; a machine embodying an abrading material or tool and means for moving it or the work, or an action equivalent to that of a tool; a holder for the work; a method or process of abrading; an attachment or accessory to a tool, machine, or process; or a plurality of these features. Note: A cutting device and an abrasive tool distinguished solely by the abrasive material or composition will be found elsewhere.

Class 702: Data Processing:Measuring, Calibrating, Or Testing

This class provides for apparatus and corresponding methods wherein the data processing system or calculating computer is designed for or utilized in an environment relating to a specific or generic measurement system, a calibration or correction system, or a testing system.

Class 425: Plastic Article Or Earthenware Shaping Or Treating: Apparatus

This is the generic class for: 1. Apparatus including a molding surface which either shapes a fluent or bulk material, which material has plasticity as a property, into a self-sustaining article or preform of desired shape or reshapes or resizes a plastic or "green" preform or product. 2. Apparatus for shaping of molten materials including metal, but excluding glass, where no molding surface is employed. 3. Apparatus for treating a product made by the apparatus of this class. 4. Apparatus for randomly depositing and particulate material.

Class 249: Static Molds

A static implement rather than a machine, having: a structure intended for shaping fluent material only wherein the structure is so arranged as to define a space or cavity for retaining the fluent material and wherein the fluent material initially having no definite form conforms to the shape of the space or cavity solely by gravitational force on the fluent material and changes to a self-sustaining shape which shape is retained even after removal from the structure.

Class 33: Geometrical Instruments

Means for determining the characteristics and the mutual relation of points, lines, angles, surfaces, and solids, considered as having no properties but those arising from extension and difference of situation. It includes mechanically guided means for describing lines.

Class 372: Coherent Light Generators

An assembly of electrical, mechanical, and optical components produces an intense, coherent, directional beam of light by stimulating electronic, ionic, or molecular transitions to lower energy levels.

Class 409: Gear Cutting, Milling, Or Planing

Method of or a machine for penetrating material without substantially reshaping the flow of such material by means of a solid tool whose edge defines a line of cut, where in the device is intended to: (a) form a product from a workpiece, which product includes protuberances intended to interfit with pockets in a cooperating member, generally for the transmission of motive force from one of the members to the other; (b) cut by a rotating cutter that forms a shaped surface on the workpiece; or (c) cut by a cutter that reciprocates relative to a workpiece and forms a shaped surface on the workpiece).

Class 407: Cutters, For Shaping

Cutting tools for shaping (as distinguished from subdividing) generally to be used in a "milling, gear cutting, or planing" machine or in a lathe, will be found in this class unless specifically provided for in another class. Included herein is all the structure normally replaced in changing from a first to a second tool, unless there is relative movement between part of the normally replaced structure and the cutting edge.

Class 269: Work Holders

A device which, during a work treating operation, contacts a workpiece for the purpose of (a) supporting the work against the force of gravity; or (b) preventing movement of the work in a particular direction or in all directions while, as disclosed, such work is supported against the force of gravity; or (c) providing a surface juxtaposed to the work for constraining the motion of a tool during its performance of such work treating operation. Holding articles together so that (by disclosure) a glue, cement or adhesive may set and secure said articles together is considered to be a work holding operation for this class. Thus a clamp or vise, disclosed for use by cabinet makers, carpenters, woodworkers, etc., to hold plural pieces together while an adhesive sets, is properly classifiable in this class.

Class 65: Glass Manufacturing

(1) processes and/or apparatus for making stock or articles of those ceramic masses, which generally include a "glass former" or an oxide which approaches glass forming properties, in their composition and which are formed by fusion of raw materials (generally mixtures, most of which are of an earthy nature - as distinguished from metallic, organic, etc., - silicon, silica, and slag are included) at ordinary high furnace temperatures, by working (molding, shaping, etc.) of the mass after being melted or changed to a plastic or softened state by heating; and (2) processes and/or apparatus for treating stock or articles made

Class 310: Electrical Generator Or Motor Structure

This is the residual class for all subject matter, not elsewhere classified, relating to electrical generator or motor structure.

Class 315: Electric Lamp And Discharge Devices: Systems

Electric lamp and electric space discharge device systems: structural combinations with circuit elements; structural combinations with heating and/or cooling means; cathode-ray tubes; lamps and/or discharge devices as sole load devices; lamps; electric space discharge devices gas or vapor discharge devices; high vacuum-type discharge devices, and gas or vapor-type discharge devices claimed broadly; plural load device systems; art uses and combinations with art devices; testing electric lamps and discharge devices; and operating a lamp or a gas or vapor discharge device.

Class 501: Compositions: Ceramic

This is the generic class for: Glass compositions and compositions for making glass, i.e., glass batch compositions, devitrified glass-ceramic compositions and processes for producing such compositions. These compositions may be regarded as thermoplastic compositions. Refractory compositions comprising primarily earthy, inorganic materials, and/or elemental carbon. Fired clay containing compositions in the nature of porcelain, earthenware, and similar materials. These compositions may be regarded as thermosetting compositions

Class 396: Photography

Photographic apparatus, generally for recording a picture made by a source of light on a photographic medium. It includes fluid-treating apparatus for development of film, a removable film-holder unit, hood, camera housing, camera setting indicator and certain accessories related to photography not otherwise provided for such as studio structure, camera mounting or rest, camera attachment, retouching, or burnishing device. Non-chemical processes involving photographic apparatus are included in this class.

Class 250: Radiant Energy

This class provides for all methods and apparatus for using, generating, controlling or detecting radiant energy, combinations including such methods or apparatus, subcombinations of same and accessories therefore not classifiable elsewhere.

Class 200: Electricity: Circuit Makers And Breakers

Combinations of circuit makers and breakers with electrical plugs, sockets, or other connectors are in this class. This class includes devices known as "controllers", "circuit-closers", "switches", "circuit-breakers", "interrupters", "distributers", "thermal-cut-offs", "fuses", and "electrical thermostats".

Class 340: Communications: Electrical

Communications - the handling of information or intelligence, restricted to the conveying of said information or intelligence between geographically spaced points. Information or intelligence is defined as being, matter which is handled by signaling systems or signaling devices (such as telegraph systems) or by that portion of nonsignaling systems or nonsignaling devices (such as power supply systems) which is designated in the arts as having a control function (such as the supervisory circuits which control the circuit breakers of an electric power network). Handling, as used above, is defined as being the active coaction between the tangible communication system or device and the intangible information or intelligence, and such coaction may assume various forms, such as transmission, storage, exhibiting, etc.

Class 345: Computer Graphics Processing And Selective Visual Display Systems

Processes and apparatus for selective electrical control of two or more light-generating or light-controlling display elements* in accordance with a received or stored image data signal. The image data includes character, graphical information or display attribute data. The image data may include, for example, information data from a peripheral input device, from the reception of a television signal, from the recognition of image data, or from the generation or creation of image data by a computer.

Class 29: Metal Working

Metal working or shaping - it comprises processes, tools, machines, and apparatus not classifiable in the specific classes relating to the manufacture of articles from metal. It has been made the generic class for the following regardless of the composition of the blank, stock material, or article recited or worked upon: (a) process of electric condenser making; (b) a burnishing process; (c) a process of manufacture; (d) apparatus used to assemble or disassemble.

Class 358: Facsimile And Static Presentation Processing

Communication or reproduction of a static image or sequence of static images in which the local light, or density variations composing the image do not vary with time by a method or apparatus involving at least one of the following steps: (1) scanning a static image to capture an image-containing area by resolving it into an area; (2) communication of an image-representative signal or image-representative data over any supporting communication network; or (3) reproduction of an image-containing area in response to an image-representative signal or image-representative image data by reproducing a corresponding image area which at least one of the two dimensions is elemental, simultaneously or in a sequence. In this class, a facsimile system or method is a system or method for the communication or reproduction of an arbitrarily composed image in which the local light, or density variations composing the image do not vary with time, such as documents maps, charts, photographs, etc., but not motion picture film or video.

Class 399: Electrophotography

Electrophotographically reproducing an original by the action of light directly from the original to a photoconductive member whose electrical conductivity, electrical charge, magnetic condition, or electrical emissivity of a photoconductive medium is selectively altered by the action of light to produce an electrostatic latent image which persists after imaging based upon differences in such electrical property. The latent image is made visible by development; and the developed image may be made permanent by transfer and fixing, or fixing.

Class 271: Sheet Feeding Or Delivering

Means for moving an individual sheet from a stack of sheets or positioning the individual sheet with respect to a location where the sheet is operated upon or moving or positioning the individual sheet after having been operated upon.

Class 42: Firearms

Includes all the portable firearms, i.e., those which are supported by hand when operated, such as shoulder guns, pistols, toy firearms and cane guns, except the automatic or explosion-operated firearms. This class also has such firearms combined with cleaners, intrenching devices, bayonets, and other cutters (including specifically pistol-swords). The following devices are likewise found here either, per se, or in combination with the firearm; ram rods, gun-rests and some body supported arm rests.