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Patent Summary

U.S. Patent Classes & Classifications Covered in this listing:

Class 359: Optical: Systems And Elements

Optical elements included in this class are: Lenses; Polarizers; Diffraction gratings; Prisms; Reflectors; Filters; Projection screens; Optical Modulators; Optical Demodulators. Among the optical systems included in this class are: Compound lens systems; Light reflecting signalling systems (e.g., retroreflectors); stereoscopic systems; Binocular devices; Systems of lenticular elements; Systems involving light interference; Glare reducing systems; Light dividing and combining systems; Light control systems (e.g., light valves); building illumination with natural light; Systems for protecting or shielding elements; Optical systems whose operation depends upon polarizing, diffracting, dispersing, reflecting, or refracting light; kaleidoscopes. Further included are certain apertures, closures, and viewing devices of a specialized nature which involve no intentional reflection, refraction, or filtering of light rays. This class also includes optical elements combined with another type of structure(s) to constitute an optical element combined with a nonoptical structure or a perfection or improvement in the optical element.

Subclass 337.11: Feedback
Subclass 337.12: Using number of signals
Subclass 337.13: Adjusting input signal power
Subclass 337.2: Filtering (e.g., noise)
Subclass 337.4: Complementary, adjusting stages
Subclass 341.33: With multiple systems
Subclass 341.41: Automatic Gain Control (AGC)
Subclass 342: Particular active medium (e.g., crystal, plasma, fluid, etc.)

Class 398: Optical Communications

This class provides for all types of communication systems in which optical signals are used to transmit modulated carrier wave information between points. Such communication includes transmitting an intelligence-bearing signal from one point to another in the form of variations in a characteristic of the light wave. The communication may be through free space, fibers or waveguides. These are used to transfer the information with an optical beam, and this beam can be used in various communication schemes to enable the most effective or desired method of moving the information, including optical multiplexing when plural information signals or plural transmitters and receivers are utilized.

Subclass 100: Subscriber system
Subclass 102: Including delay
Subclass 11: Repeater
Subclass 12: Switch
Subclass 13: Fiber or waveguide
Subclass 139: Including optical fiber or waveguide
Subclass 149: Using equalizing filter (e.g., interferometer, grating)
Subclass 15: Stop transmission or reduce power
Subclass 158: Including compensation
Subclass 16: Test signal
Subclass 17: Fault detection
Subclass 177: Monitoring
Subclass 18: Repeater
Subclass 180: Specific optical elements
Subclass 183: Having particular modulation
Subclass 19: Switch
Subclass 193: Precompensation (e.g., prechirping, predistortion
Subclass 195: Including feedback
Subclass 196: For wavelength control
Subclass 197: For power control
Subclass 198: For modulator control
Subclass 20: Optical fiber
Subclass 209: Feedback
Subclass 210: Amplitude
Subclass 25: Determination of communication parameter
Subclass 30: Using supervisory signal
Subclass 33: Monitoring
Subclass 38: Power
Subclass 45: Optical switching
Subclass 50: Crossconnect
Subclass 56: Crossconnect
Subclass 59: Ring or loop
Subclass 79: Wavelength division or frequency division (e.g., Raman, Brillouin, etc.)
Subclass 82: By optical coupling
Subclass 94: Power control
Subclass 95: Wavelength control
Subclass 97: Repeater
Subclass 98: Time division
Subclass 99: Multiple access (e.g., TDMA, CSMA)

Class 385: Optical Waveguides

(1) An optical waveguiding element, which conveys light from one point to another through an optically transparent elongated structure by modal transmission, total internal reflection, or total reflectorization. (2) A combination of an optical waveguiding element with an additional broadly recited optical element which couples light or a combination. (3) A combination of an optical waveguiding element with structure which mechanically joins this waveguiding element with another or with a diverse optical element. (4) An optical modulator where the modulation of a light wave characteristic is performed exclusively within an optical waveguiding element. (5) Other miscellaneous devices formed of an optical waveguide (e.g., a waveguide sensing device) and supplemental devices which are limited to use with an optical waveguide (e.g., an external clamp or retainer).

Subclass 16: Switch (i.e., switching from one terminal to another, not modulation)
Subclass 24: Plural (e.g., data bus)
Subclass 37: Grating
Subclass 7: Acousto-optic
Subclass 88: Optical fiber to a nonfiber optical device connector
Subclass 92: With housing

Class 370: Multiplex Communications

This is the generic class for multiplexing or duplexing systems, methods, or apparatus.

Subclass 216: FAULT RECOVERY
Subclass 217: Bypass an inoperative switch or inoperative element of a switching system
Subclass 218: Packet switching system or element
Subclass 221: Bypass an inoperative station
Subclass 222: In a ring or loop network
Subclass 223: Using a secondary ring or loop
Subclass 224: Loopback of signals on the secondary ring or loop
Subclass 227: Using a spare channel
Subclass 228: Spare channel
Subclass 232: Based on data flow rate measurement
Subclass 235: Flow control of data transmission through a network
Subclass 236: Including signaling between network elements
Subclass 242: Fault detection
Subclass 248: Path check
Subclass 249: Loopback
Subclass 341: Channel assignment
Subclass 389: Switching a message which includes an address header
Subclass 390: Replicate messages for multiple destination distribution
Subclass 392: Processing of address header for routing, per se
Subclass 395.1: Message transmitted using fixed length packets (e.g., ATM cells)
Subclass 395.21: Based on traffic contract (including using setup messages, QoS, delay/bandwidth requirement)
Subclass 395.4: Assigning period of time for information to be transmitted (e.g., scheduling)
Subclass 395.61: Adapting constant bit rate (CBR) data (e.g., voice, or narrow band ISDN over ATM, or using AAL1)
Subclass 395.7: Having detail of switch memory reading/writing
Subclass 400: Having a plurality of nodes performing distributed switching
Subclass 401: Bridge or gateway between networks
Subclass 412: Queuing arrangement
Subclass 413: Having both input and output queuing
Subclass 422: Centralized switching
Subclass 428: Store and forward
Subclass 461: Arbitration for access between contending stations
Subclass 463: Details of circuit or interface for connecting user to the network
Subclass 474: Assembly or disassembly of messages having address headers
Subclass 511: Using redundant synchronization words
Subclass 513: Plural synchronization words
Subclass 535: Multiplexing combined with demultiplexing
Subclass 536: Demultiplexing single signal into plural parallel channels (e.g., parallel transmission for increasing transmission speed)
Subclass 537: Multiplexing plural input channels to a common output channel

Class 714: Error Detection/Correction And Fault Detection/Recovery

This class provides for process or apparatus for detecting and correcting errors in electrical pulse or pulse coded data; it also provides for process or apparatus for detecting and recovering from faults in electrical computers and digital data processing systems, as well as logic level based systems.

Subclass 1: Reliability and availability
Subclass 25: Fault locating (i.e., diagnosis or testing)
Subclass 707: Synchronization control
Subclass 724: Digital logic testing
Subclass 789: Synchronization
Subclass 798: Error detection for synchronization control

Class 372: Coherent Light Generators

An assembly of electrical, mechanical, and optical components produces an intense, coherent, directional beam of light by stimulating electronic, ionic, or molecular transitions to lower energy levels.

Subclass 20: Tuning
Subclass 32: Frequency
Subclass 38.02: For driving or controlling laser

Class 324: Electricity: Measuring And Testing

This is the residual home for all subject matter, not elsewhere classified, relating to the measuring, testing (or sensing) of electric properties, (e.g., determining ground resistivity, determining frequency of an alternating current, determining kilowatt hour demand), or the measuring, testing or sensing of nonelectric properties by electric means (e.g., determining moisture, a nonelectric property, by measuring conductance with a resistance bridge; determining speed, a nonelectric property by use of an electric tachometer).

Subclass 533: Of reflected test signal
Subclass 534: By reflection technique

Class 356: Optics: Measuring And Testing

Methods and apparatus (1) for analyzing light to measure or test its characteristics, such as intensity, color and polarization; (2) for determining the optical or nonoptical properties of materials or articles by noting, as by inspection, measurement, or test the effect produced by the materials or articles on light associated therewith; and (3) for measuring the dimensions of structures or the spatial relationships such as distances or angle bearings of spaced points by comparison of the respective properties (usually direction or spatial position) of the light from these points or by comparison of the properties of these lights with some scale or standard. The light analyzing includes or is for spectroscopy, interference, polarization, beam direction or pattern, focal position of a light source, shade or color, and photometers. The material or article properties determined are or involve crystal or gem examination, material strain analysis, blood analysis, optical pyrometers, egg candling, cutting blade sharpness, oil testing, document verification, flatness, lens or reflector testing, refraction testing, monitoring moving webs or fabrics, light transmission or absorption, light reflection, inspection for flaws or imperfections in materials, and thread counting. The dimensioning and spatial relationship determination includes triangulation by a light beam, contour plotting, range or height finders, motion stopping, velocity or velocity/height measuring, sighting where the optical element or reticle moves with the sighted object, particle size determination, particle light scattering, electrophoresis, angle measuring or axial alignment, mensuration or configuration comparison, alignment in a lateral direction, and fiducial instruments.


Class 709: Electrical Computers And Digital Processing Systems: Multicomputer Data Transferring

This class provides for an electrical computer or digital data processing system or corresponding data processing method including apparatus or steps for transferring data or instruction information between a plurality of computers wherein the computers employ the data or instructions before or after transferring and the employing affects said transfer of data or instruction information. The class includes - process or apparatus for transferring data among a plurality of spatially distributed (i.e., situated, at plural locations) computers or digital data processing systems via one or more communications media (e.g., computer networks).

Subclass 212: Detecting particular sequence of bits
Subclass 232: Array of elements (e.g., AND/OR array, etc.)

Class 707: Data Processing:Database And File Management Or Data Structures

This is the generic class for data processing apparatus and corresponding methods for the retrieval of data stored in a database or as computer files. It provides for data processing means or steps for generic data, file and directory upkeeping, file naming, and file and database maintenance including integrity consideration, recovery, and versioning. There are three main divisions: 1. database and file accessing; 2. database schema and data structure; 3. file and database maintenance.

Class 382: Image Analysis

This is the generic class for apparatus and corresponding methods for the automated analysis of an image or recognition of a pattern. Included herein are systems that transform an image for the purpose of (a) enhancing its visual quality prior to recognition, (b) locating and registering the image relative to a sensor or stored prototype, or reducing the amount of image data by discarding irrelevant data, and (c) measuring significant characteristics of the image.

Subclass 218: Comparator
Subclass 306: Using identification indicia on document

Class 358: Facsimile And Static Presentation Processing

Communication or reproduction of a static image or sequence of static images in which the local light, or density variations composing the image do not vary with time by a method or apparatus involving at least one of the following steps: (1) scanning a static image to capture an image-containing area by resolving it into an area; (2) communication of an image-representative signal or image-representative data over any supporting communication network; or (3) reproduction of an image-containing area in response to an image-representative signal or image-representative image data by reproducing a corresponding image area which at least one of the two dimensions is elemental, simultaneously or in a sequence. In this class, a facsimile system or method is a system or method for the communication or reproduction of an arbitrarily composed image in which the local light, or density variations composing the image do not vary with time, such as documents maps, charts, photographs, etc., but not motion picture film or video.

Subclass 1.16: Memory

Class 710: Electrical Computers And Digital Data Processing Systems: Input/Output

This class provides, within a computer or digital data processing system with the following processes or apparatus for 1. transferring data from one or more peripherals to one or more computers or digital data processing systems for the latter to process, store, or further transfer or for transferring data from the computers or digital data processing systems to the peripherals; 2. for interconnecting or communicating between two or more components connected to an interconnection medium (e.g., a bus) within a single computer or digital data processing system; 3. for preventing access to a shared resource of a computer or digital data processing system; 4. for granting access to a shared resource of a computer of digital data processing system by one of a plurality of components of the computer or digital data processing system by interrogating each of the components in a predetermined order; 5. for determining which of a plurality of components of a computer or digital data processing system contending for access to a shared resource shall be granted access at any one time based upon a predetermined criteria; and 6. for stopping, halting, or suspending a current processing function within a computer or digital data processing system.

Subclass 9: Address assignment
Subclass 23: Programmed control memory accessing
Subclass 26: Using addressing
Subclass 52: Input/Output data buffering

Class 711: Electrical Computers And Digital Processing Systems: Memory

This class provides, within an electrical computer or digital data processing system, for the following processes and apparatus 1. for addressing memory wherein the processes and apparatus involve significant address manipulating (e.g., combining, translating, or mapping and other techniques for formatting and modifying address data) and are combined with specific memory configurations or memory systems; 2. for accessing and controlling memory (e.g., transferring and modifying address data, selecting storage devices, scheduling access); and 3. for forming memory addresses (e.g., virtual memory addressing, address translating, translation-lookaside buffers (TLBs), boundary checking, and page mode).

Subclass 3: Addressing cache memories
Subclass 109: Shift register memory
Subclass 111: Accessing dynamic storage device
Subclass 145: Access control bit

Class 375: Pulse Or Digital Communications

This is the generic class for pulse or digital communication systems using electrical or electromagnetic signals. Such communication includes transmitting an intelligence bearing signal from one point to another in the form of discrete variations in some parameter of the electrical or electromagnetic signal.

Subclass 134: Having specific code acquisition or tracking
Subclass 365: Synchronization word
Subclass 368: Synchronizer pattern recognizers

Class 726: Information Security

This class provides, within a computer or digital data processing system, for processes or apparatus for increasing a system s extension of protection of system hardware, software, or data from maliciously caused destruction, unauthorized modification, or unauthorized disclosure. It provides for protection of data processing systems, apparatus, and methods as well as protection of information and services. Subject matter included in this class includes security policies, access control, monitoring, scanning data, countermeasures, usage control, and data protection from maliciously caused destruction, unauthorized modification, or unauthorized disclosure, and includes protection of hardware, and user protection, e.g., privacy, etc.

Subclass 23: Intrusion detection