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Patent Summary

U.S. Patent Classes & Classifications Covered in this listing:

Class 117: Single-Crystal, Oriented-Crystal, And Epitaxy Growth Processes; Non-Coating Apparatus Therefor

Processes consisting of the single or repeated unit operation of forming a single-crystal of any type of material, including inorganic or organic; such processes combined with perfecting operations; and apparatus for conducting non-coating processes of this class.

Subclass 104: Using an organic precursor (e.g., propane, metal-organic, MOCVD, MOVPE)
Subclass 4: PROCESSES OF GROWTH FROM SOLID OR GEL STATE (E.G., SOLID PHASE RECRYSTALLIZATION)
Subclass 7: Using heat (e.g., strain annealing)
Subclass 88: With decomposition of a precursor (except impurity or dopant precursor) composed of diverse atoms (e.g., CVD)

Class 365: Static Information Storage And Retrieval

Apparatus or corresponding processes for the static storage and retrieval of information. For classification herein, the storage system must be (1) static, (2) a singular storage element or plural elements of the same type, (3) addressable.

Subclass 185.11: Bank or block architecture
Subclass 63: INTERCONNECTION ARRANGEMENTS
Subclass 65: Ferroelectric
Subclass 117: Ferroelectric
Subclass 129: SYSTEMS USING PARTICULAR ELEMENT
Subclass 145: Ferroelectric
Subclass 148: Resistive
Subclass 149: Capacitors
Subclass 161: Thin film
Subclass 189.05: Having particular data buffer or latch
Subclass 189.07: Including signal comparison
Subclass 189.09: Including reference or bias voltage generator
Subclass 195: Inhibit
Subclass 201: Testing
Subclass 203: Precharge
Subclass 207: Differential sensing
Subclass 222: Data refresh
Subclass 226: POWERING
Subclass 228: Data preservation
Subclass 230.03: Plural blocks or banks
Subclass 230.06: Particular decoder or driver circuit
Subclass 238.5: Byte or page addressing

Class 257: Active Solid-State Devices (E.G., Transistors, Solid-State Diodes)

This class provides for active solid-state electronic devices, that is, electronic devices or components that are made up primarily of solid materials, usually semiconductors, which operate by the movement of charge carriers - electrons or holes - which undergo energy level changes within the material and can modify an input voltage to achieve rectification, amplification, or switching action, and are not classified elsewhere.

Subclass 192: Field effect transistor
Subclass 256: Junction field effect transistor (unipolar transistor)
Subclass 293: Photoresistors accessed by FETs, or photodetectors separate from FET chip
Subclass 294: With shield, filter, or lens
Subclass 295: With ferroelectric material layer
Subclass 296: Insulated gate capacitor or insulated gate transistor combined with capacitor (e.g., dynamic memory cell)
Subclass 297: With means for preventing charge leakage due to minority carrier generation (e.g., alpha generated soft error protection or dark current leakage protection)
Subclass 298: Capacitor for signal storage in combination with non-volatile storage means
Subclass 300: Capacitor coupled to, or forms gate of, insulated gate field effect transistor (e.g., non-destructive readout dynamic memory cell structure)
Subclass 301: Capacitor in trench
Subclass 303: Stacked capacitor
Subclass 306: Stacked capacitor
Subclass 310: With high dielectric constant insulator (e.g., Ta 2 O 5 )
Subclass 315: With floating gate electrode
Subclass 321: With thin insulator region for charging or discharging floating electrode by quantum mechanical tunneling
Subclass 347: Single crystal semiconductor layer on insulating substrate (SOI)
Subclass 369: Complementary insulated gate field effect transistors
Subclass 392: Insulated gate field effect transistors of different threshold voltages in same integrated circuit (e.g., enhancement and depletion mode)
Subclass 410: Gate insulator includes material (including air or vacuum) other than SiO 2
Subclass 411: Composite or layered gate insulator (e.g., mixture such as silicon oxynitride)
Subclass 412: Gate electrode of refractory material (e.g., polysilicon or a silicide of a refractory or platinum group metal)
Subclass 413: Polysilicon laminated with silicide
Subclass 414: RESPONSIVE TO NON-ELECTRICAL SIGNAL (E.G., CHEMICAL, STRESS, LIGHT, OR MAGNETIC FIELD SENSORS)
Subclass 417: Strain sensors
Subclass 418: With means to concentrate stress
Subclass 421: Magnetic field
Subclass 443: Matrix or array (e.g., single line arrays)
Subclass 751: At least one layer forms a diffusion barrier
Subclass 752: Planarized to top of insulating layer
Subclass 757: Silicide of refractory or platinum group metal
Subclass 761: At least one layer containing vanadium, hafnium, niobium, zirconium, or tantalum
Subclass 768: Refractory or platinum group metal or alloy or silicide thereof
Subclass 774: Via (interconnection hole) shape
Subclass E27.086: Storage electrode stacked over the transistor
Subclass E27.104: Ferroelectric non-volatile memory structure (EPO)
Subclass E29.151: For TFT (EPO)
Subclass E29.152: With lateral structure (e.g., poly-silicon gate with lateral doping variation or with lateral composition variation or characterized by sidewalls being composed of conductive, resistivity) (EPO)
Subclass E29.164: With at least one ferroelectric layer (EPO)
Subclass E29.252: With direct single heterostructure (i.e., with wide bandgap layer formed on top of active layer (e.g., direct single heterostructure MIS-like HEMT)) (EPO)
Subclass E29.272: Gate comprising ferroelectric layer (EPO)
Subclass E29.295: Characterized by insulating substrate or support (EPO)
Subclass E29.315: With heterojunction gate (e.g., transistors with semiconductor layer acting as gate insulating layer) (EPO)
Subclass E21.008: Of capacitor (EPO)
Subclass E21.009: Dielectric having perovskite structure (EPO)
Subclass E21.01: Dielectric comprising two or more layers, e.g., buffer layers, seed layers, gradient layers (EPO)
Subclass E21.011: Formation of electrode (EPO)
Subclass E21.018: Having vertical extensions (EPO)
Subclass E21.019: Made by depositing layers, e.g., alternatingly conductive and insulating layers (EPO)
Subclass E21.021: Having multilayers, e.g., comprising barrier layer and metal layer (EPO)
Subclass E21.168: Conductive layer comprising transition metal, e.g., Ti, W, Mo (EPO)
Subclass E21.169: By physical means, e.g., sputtering, evaporation (EPO)
Subclass E21.208: Comprising layer having ferroelectric properties (EPO)
Subclass E21.209: Making electrode structure comprising conductor-insulator-conuctor-insulator-semiconductor, e.g., gate stack for non-volatile memory (EPO)
Subclass E21.244: Involving dielectric removal step (EPO)
Subclass E21.252: By dry-etching (EPO)
Subclass E21.253: Of layers not containing Si, e.g., PZT, Al 2 O 3 (EPO)
Subclass E21.272: With perovskite structure (EPO)
Subclass E21.274: Deposition from gas or vapor (EPO)
Subclass E21.28: Deposition of aluminum oxide (EPO)
Subclass E21.295: Deposition of layer comprising metal, e.g., metal, alloys, metal compounds (EPO)
Subclass E21.304: By chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) (EPO)
Subclass E21.31: By vapor etching only (EPO)
Subclass E21.311: Using plasma (EPO)
Subclass E21.314: Using mask (EPO)
Subclass E21.422: With floating gate (EPO)
Subclass E21.436: Gate comprising layer with ferroelectric properties (EPO)
Subclass E21.444: Using dummy gate wherein at least part of final gate is self-aligned to dummy gate (EPO)
Subclass E21.453: Process wherein final gate is made after formation of source and drain regions in active layer, e.g., dummy-gate process (EPO)
Subclass E21.575: Interconnections, comprising conductors and dielectrics, for carrying current between separate components within device (EPO)
Subclass E21.582: Characterized by formation and post treatment of conductors, e.g., patterning (EPO)
Subclass E21.647: Characterized by type of capacitor (EPO)
Subclass E21.648: Capacitor stacked over transfer transis tor (EPO)
Subclass E21.649: Making connection between transistor and capacitor, e.g., plug (EPO)
Subclass E21.663: Ferroelectric nonvolatile memory structures (EPO)
Subclass E21.664: With ferroelectric capacitor (EPO)
Subclass E21.703: Substrate is semiconductor body (EPO)

Class 216: Etching A Substrate: Processes

Chemical etching processes for treating articles of commerce or intermediate articles not otherwise provided for in which one of the manufacturing steps includes a chemical etching step (use of an etchant) and wherein the material treated is not completely removed.

Subclass 41: MASKING OF A SUBSTRATE USING MATERIAL RESISTANT TO AN ETCHANT (I.E., ETCH RESIST)
Subclass 57: GAS PHASE AND NONGASEOUS PHASE ETCHING ON THE SAME SUBSTRATE
Subclass 67: Using plasma
Subclass 69: Using microwave to generate the plasma
Subclass 72: Etching a multiple layered substrate where the etching condition used produces a different etching rate or characteristic between at least two of the layers of the substrate
Subclass 75: Substrate contains elemental metal, alloy thereof, or metal compound
Subclass 79: Etching silicon containing substrate

Class 252: Compositions

(A) Compositions of matter, having or not having structure, physical form or heterogeneous arrangement of components and for which there is no provision elsewhere. (B) Packages of such compositions, or other articles which include such compositions for which there is no provision elsewhere. (C) Processes of making, or peculiar to making, such compositions and for which there is no provision elsewhere. (D) Apparatus for use in or peculiar to such processes and for which there is no provision elsewhere.

Subclass 62.9R: PIEZOELECTRIC
Subclass 62.9PZ: Lead, zirconium, titanium or compound thereof containing
Subclass 79.1: ETCHING OR BRIGHTENING COMPOSITIONS
Subclass 514: Noble metal (gold, silver, ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, osmium, iridium, platinum)
Subclass 518.1: Metal compound containing
Subclass 519.12: Titanium containing
Subclass 519.13: Bismuth, ruthenium, or iridium containing
Subclass 520.3: Silver, gold, or platinum compound

Class 438: Semiconductor Device Manufacturing: Process

This class provides for manufacturing a semiconductor containing a solid-state device for the following purposes: (a) conducting or modifying an electrical current, (b) storing electrical energy for subsequent discharge within a microelectronic integrated circuit, or (c) converting electromagnetic wave energy to electrical energy or electrical energy to electromagnetic energy. Also operations involving: (1) coating a substrate with a semiconductive material, or (2) coating a semiconductive substrate or substrate containing a semiconductive region. It also provides for operations involving etching a semiconductive substrate or etching a substrate containing a semiconductive region. The class provides for packaging or treatment of packaged semiconductor.

Subclass 102: HAVING SELENIUM OR TELLURIUM ELEMENTAL SEMICONDUCTOR COMPONENT
Subclass 104: HAVING METAL OXIDE OR COPPER SULFIDE COMPOUND SEMICONDUCTOR COMPONENT
Subclass 142: MAKING FIELD EFFECT DEVICE HAVING PAIR OF ACTIVE REGIONS SEPARATED BY GATE STRUCTURE BY FORMATION OR ALTERATION OF SEMICONDUCTIVE ACTIVE REGIONS
Subclass 149: On insulating substrate or layer (e.g., TFT, etc.)
Subclass 151: Having insulated gate
Subclass 182: T-gate
Subclass 183: Dummy gate
Subclass 197: Having insulated gate (e.g., IGFET, MISFET, MOSFET, etc.)
Subclass 201: Including insulated gate field effect transistor having gate surrounded by dielectric (i.e., floating gate)
Subclass 211: Having gate surrounded by dielectric (i.e., floating gate)
Subclass 229: Self-aligned
Subclass 238: Including passive device (e.g., resistor, capacitor, etc.)
Subclass 239: Capacitor
Subclass 240: Having high dielectric constant insulator (e.g., Ta2O5, etc.)
Subclass 243: Trench capacitor
Subclass 244: Utilizing stacked capacitor structure (e.g., stacked trench, buried stacked capacitor, etc.)
Subclass 248: Including isolation means formed in trench
Subclass 250: Planar capacitor
Subclass 253: Stacked capacitor
Subclass 254: Including selectively removing material to undercut and expose storage node layer
Subclass 255: Including texturizing storage node layer
Subclass 257: Having additional gate electrode surrounded by dielectric (i.e., floating gate)
Subclass 259: Including forming gate electrode in trench or recess in substrate
Subclass 260: Textured surface of gate insulator or gate electrode
Subclass 286: Asymmetric
Subclass 287: Gate insulator structure constructed of diverse dielectrics (e.g., MNOS, etc.) or of nonsilicon compound
Subclass 3: HAVING MAGNETIC OR FERROELECTRIC COMPONENT
Subclass 301: Source or drain doping
Subclass 353: Including isolation structure
Subclass 381: MAKING PASSIVE DEVICE (E.G., RESISTOR, CAPACITOR, ETC.)
Subclass 386: Trench capacitor
Subclass 387: Having stacked capacitor structure (e.g., stacked trench, buried stacked capacitor, etc.)
Subclass 393: Planar capacitor
Subclass 396: Stacked capacitor
Subclass 397: Including selectively removing material to undercut and expose storage node layer
Subclass 398: Including texturizing storage node layer
Subclass 585: Insulated gate formation
Subclass 588: Plural gate levels
Subclass 592: Possessing plural conductive layers (e.g., polycide)
Subclass 605: Multilayer electrode
Subclass 631: Having planarization step
Subclass 633: Simultaneously by chemical and mechanical means
Subclass 634: Utilizing etch-stop layer
Subclass 636: Including use of antireflective layer
Subclass 643: At least one layer forms a diffusion barrier
Subclass 645: Having planarization step
Subclass 648: Having refractory group metal (i.e., titanium (Ti), zirconium (Zr), hafnium (Hf), vanadium (V), niobium (Nb), tantalum (Ta), chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo), tungsten (W), or alloy thereof)
Subclass 650: Having noble group metal (i.e., silver (Ag), gold (Au), platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd), rhodium (Rh), ruthenium (Ru), iridium (Ir), osmium (Os), or alloy thereof)
Subclass 653: At least one layer forms a diffusion barrier
Subclass 656: Having refractory group metal (i.e., titanium (Ti), zirconium (Zr), hafnium (Hf), vanadium (V), niobium (Nb), tantalum (Ta), chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo), tungsten (W), or alloy thereof)
Subclass 660: Including heat treatment of conductive layer
Subclass 680: Utilizing chemical vapor deposition (i.e., CVD)
Subclass 686: Noble group metal (i.e., silver (Ag), gold (Au), platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd), rhodium (Rh), ruthenium (Ru), iridium (Ir), osmium (Os), or alloy thereof)
Subclass 691: Combined mechanical and chemical material removal
Subclass 692: Simultaneous (e.g., chemical-mechanical polishing, etc.)
Subclass 695: Simultaneous etching and coating
Subclass 704: Having liquid and vapor etching steps
Subclass 706: Vapor phase etching (i.e., dry etching)
Subclass 710: By creating electric field (e.g., plasma, glow discharge, etc.)
Subclass 720: Electrically conductive material (e.g., metal, conductive oxide, etc.)
Subclass 722: Metal oxide
Subclass 723: Silicon oxide or glass
Subclass 724: Silicon nitride
Subclass 754: Electrically conductive material (e.g., metal, conductive oxide, etc.)
Subclass 757: Silicon nitride
Subclass 778: Insulative material deposited upon semiconductive substrate
Subclass 785: Insulative material is compound of refractory group metal (i.e., titanium (Ti), zirconium (Zr), hafnium (Hf), vanadium (V), niobium (Nb), tantalum (Ta), chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo), tungsten (W), or alloy thereof)
Subclass 933: GERMANIUM OR SILICON OR GE-SI ON III-V
Subclass 957: MAKING METAL-INSULATOR-METAL DEVICE

Class 359: Optical: Systems And Elements

Optical elements included in this class are: Lenses; Polarizers; Diffraction gratings; Prisms; Reflectors; Filters; Projection screens; Optical Modulators; Optical Demodulators. Among the optical systems included in this class are: Compound lens systems; Light reflecting signalling systems (e.g., retroreflectors); stereoscopic systems; Binocular devices; Systems of lenticular elements; Systems involving light interference; Glare reducing systems; Light dividing and combining systems; Light control systems (e.g., light valves); building illumination with natural light; Systems for protecting or shielding elements; Optical systems whose operation depends upon polarizing, diffracting, dispersing, reflecting, or refracting light; kaleidoscopes. Further included are certain apertures, closures, and viewing devices of a specialized nature which involve no intentional reflection, refraction, or filtering of light rays. This class also includes optical elements combined with another type of structure(s) to constitute an optical element combined with a nonoptical structure or a perfection or improvement in the optical element.

Subclass 248: Semiconductor

Class 423: Chemistry Of Inorganic Compounds

This class provides for what is generally termed the field of inorganic chemistry. It includes inorganic compounds, nonmetallic elements and processes of producing the same involving a chemical reaction. The products are generally in a relatively pure state but may be a mixture with no other utility than as a source material for an inorganic compound or element. This includes metal compound products useful in metallurgical processes of obtaining free metals.

Subclass 598: Titanium (e.g., titanate, etc.)
Subclass 594.9: Tin, lead, or germanium containing (e.g., stannate, plumbate, etc.)
Subclass 594.12: Zirconium containing (e.g., zirconate, etc.)
Subclass 608: Group IVB metal (Ti, Zr, or Hf)
Subclass 618: Group IVA metal (Ge, Sn, or Pb)

Class 73: Measuring And Testing

Processes and apparatus for making a measurement of any kind or for making a test of any kind, and takes all such subject matter not provided for in other classes. The term "test" includes inspection, processes and apparatus for determining qualities by inspection being included where not provided for in other classes. This class is the generic class for sampling and takes all sampling apparatus and processes not otherwise provided.

Subclass 514.16: Specific type of electric sensor or specific type of magnetic sensor
Subclass 514.21: Pendulum or beam
Subclass 514.34: Piezoelectric sensor
Subclass 514.36: Pendulum or beam

Class 428: Stock Material Or Miscellaneous Articles

This is the residual class for: 1. Stock material in the form of a structurally defined web, sheet, rod, strand, fiber, filament, cell, flake, particle not provided elsewhere. 2. Stock material in the form of a web, sheet, mass or layer which consists of or contains a structurally defined constituent or element. 3. A nonstructural laminate defined merely in terms of the composition of one or more layers. 4. An article of manufacture or an intermediate-article not provided for elsewhere. 5. A process for applying an impregnating material to a naturally solid product such as a wood beam, a sheet of leather or a stone, or for applying a coating to a base, and which process includes no significant method step.

Subclass 641: Ge- or Si-base component
Subclass 645: Pb-base component
Subclass 670: Platinum group metal-base component
Subclass 220: Physical dimension specified
Subclass 325: Glass or ceramic (i.e., fired or glazed clay, cement, etc.) (porcelain, quartz, etc.)
Subclass 328: Heavy metal or aluminum or compound thereof
Subclass 446: Of silicon containing (not as silicon alloy)
Subclass 469: Next to metal salt or oxide
Subclass 472: Refractory metal salt or oxide
Subclass 688: Of inorganic material
Subclass 697: Layer contains compound(s) of plural metals
Subclass 699: Next to second metal-compound-containing layer
Subclass 700: Single crystal
Subclass 701: O-containing metal compound
Subclass 702: O-containing

Class 427: Coating Processes

This is the generic class for: A. applying or obtaining a coating on a surface. The coating may be hard or soft, permanent or transitory, supplied solely by extraneous materials or supplied wholly or in part by the base material. B. impregnating a base by causing a coating material to extend or penetrate into the base material, or into the interstices of a porous, cellular or foraminous material. C. taking preparatory treatments of the base material, subsequent treatments of the coated base material and other ancillary noncoating operations claimed, per se, processes limited to etching for making a base more compatible with, or adherent to, the coating wherein the base is the substrate (work) onto which a coating is applied are included.

Subclass 100: Piezoelectric properties
Subclass 126.3: Metal oxide, peroxide, or hydroxide coating
Subclass 248.1: COATING BY VAPOR, GAS, OR SMOKE
Subclass 255.15: Plural coatings applied utilizing vapor, gas, or smoke
Subclass 255.19: Metal oxide containing coating
Subclass 255.23: Mixture of vapors or gases (e.g., deposition gas and inert gas, inert gas and reactive gas, two or more reactive gases, etc.) utilized
Subclass 255.28: Coating formed from vaporous or gaseous phase reaction mixture (e.g., chemical vapor deposition, CVD, etc.)
Subclass 255.32: Plural metal containing coating (e.g., indium oxide/tin oxide, titanium oxide/aluminum oxide, etc.)
Subclass 255.35: Germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), or lead (Pb) containing
Subclass 255.7: Plural coatings applied by vapor, gas, or smoke
Subclass 585: Chemical vapor deposition (e.g., electron beam or heating using IR, inductance, resistance, etc.)

Class 106: Compositions: Coating Or Plastic

This class is the broad generic class for: (1) Coating, impregnating or plastic compositions, especially those which set or harden to retain a given shape. Most of the compositions herein found are those which are capable of undergoing a change from a fluent to a nonfluent condition, or from a solid noncoherent form to a solid coherent form. (2) Materials or ingredients, not in themselves coating, for use in such compositions and for which there is no provision elsewhere. (3) This class takes processes for preparing or making the compositions, materials, or ingredients classified herein, which processes are classified with the corresponding composition, material or ingredient. (4) This class does not include patents which are limited to apparatus only.

Subclass 287.19: Group IVA or IVB (Ti, Zr, Hf, Ge, Sn, Pb)

Class 324: Electricity: Measuring And Testing

This is the residual home for all subject matter, not elsewhere classified, relating to the measuring, testing (or sensing) of electric properties, (e.g., determining ground resistivity, determining frequency of an alternating current, determining kilowatt hour demand), or the measuring, testing or sensing of nonelectric properties by electric means (e.g., determining moisture, a nonelectric property, by measuring conductance with a resistance bridge; determining speed, a nonelectric property by use of an electric tachometer).

Subclass 457: ELECTROSTATIC FIELD
Subclass 72: TESTING POTENTIAL IN SPECIFIC ENVIRONMENT (E.G., LIGHTNING STROKE)

Class 327: Miscellaneous Active Electrical Nonlinear Devices, Circuits, And Systems

This is the residual class for electrical devices, circuits or systems having an output not directly proportional to its input and comprising at least one component which can provide gain or can route electrical current and which device, circuit or system does not form a complete system such as is classified specifically elsewhere or a subcombination of utility only in such elsewhere classified system.

Subclass 142: Reset (e.g., initializing, starting, stopping, etc.)
Subclass 143: Responsive to power supply
Subclass 147: Phase lock loop

Class 501: Compositions: Ceramic

This is the generic class for: Glass compositions and compositions for making glass, i.e., glass batch compositions, devitrified glass-ceramic compositions and processes for producing such compositions. These compositions may be regarded as thermoplastic compositions. Refractory compositions comprising primarily earthy, inorganic materials, and/or elemental carbon. Fired clay containing compositions in the nature of porcelain, earthenware, and similar materials. These compositions may be regarded as thermosetting compositions

Subclass 22: Lead containing
Subclass 42: Germanium containing