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Patent Summary

U.S. Patent Classes & Classifications Covered in this listing:

Class 375: Pulse Or Digital Communications

This is the generic class for pulse or digital communication systems using electrical or electromagnetic signals. Such communication includes transmitting an intelligence bearing signal from one point to another in the form of discrete variations in some parameter of the electrical or electromagnetic signal.

Subclass 140: Direct sequence
Subclass 141: End-to-end transmission system
Subclass 146: Transmitter
Subclass 147: Receiver
Subclass 149: Having specific code synchronization
Subclass 152: Matched-filter-type receiver
Subclass 219: TRANSCEIVERS
Subclass 221: Loopback mode
Subclass 222: Modems (data sets)
Subclass 224: TESTING
Subclass 225: Data rate
Subclass 229: EQUALIZERS
Subclass 232: Adaptive
Subclass 235: Quadrature channels
Subclass 244: Differential
Subclass 247: Single bit (delta)
Subclass 260: Plural channels for transmission of a single pulse train
Subclass 261: Quadrature amplitude modulation
Subclass 265: Trellis encoder or Trellis decoder
Subclass 271: Angle modulation
Subclass 272: Frequency shift keying
Subclass 274: Minimum shift keying
Subclass 295: TRANSMITTERS
Subclass 296: Antinoise or distortion (includes predistortion)
Subclass 298: Quadrature amplitude modulation
Subclass 300: Amplitude modulation
Subclass 302: Angle modulation
Subclass 303: Frequency shift keying
Subclass 308: Phase shift keying
Subclass 316: RECEIVERS
Subclass 317: Automatic baseline or threshold adjustment
Subclass 324: Particular demodulator
Subclass 326: Carrier recovery circuit or carrier tracking
Subclass 327: Phase locked loop
Subclass 328: Including switching or gating (digital circuits)
Subclass 329: Phase shift keying
Subclass 334: Frequency shift keying
Subclass 335: More than two frequencies
Subclass 336: Minimum shift keying
Subclass 339: Carrier controlling local generator
Subclass 340: Particular pulse demodulator or detector
Subclass 341: Maximum likelihood decoder or viterbi decoder
Subclass 342: Locating predetermined portion of pulse
Subclass 343: Correlative or matched filter
Subclass 344: Automatic frequency control
Subclass 345: Automatic gain control
Subclass 346: Interference or noise reduction
Subclass 347: Diversity (frequency or time)
Subclass 349: Plural signal paths in receiver
Subclass 350: By filtering (e.g., digital)
Subclass 351: Gating, blanking, etc.
Subclass 355: Synchronizing the sampling time of digital data
Subclass 359: Self-synchronizing signal (self-clocking codes, etc.)
Subclass 365: Synchronization word
Subclass 367: Pseudo noise
Subclass 371: Phase displacement, slip or jitter correction
Subclass 373: Phase locking
Subclass 374: With charge pump or up and down counters
Subclass 375: With frequency detector and phase detector
Subclass 376: Phase locked loop
Subclass E1.002: Using direct sequence modulation (EPO)
Subclass E1.005: Code identification (EPO)
Subclass E1.022: With estimation filters (EPO)
Subclass E1.032: The interference being multi path interference, e.g., RAKE receivers (EPO)
Subclass E1.033: Using frequency hopping (EPO)

Class 376: Induced Nuclear Reactions: Processes, Systems, And Elements

This class provides processes involving induced nuclear reactions and structures which implement such processes.

Subclass 267: Refueling schemes, patterns, or fuel cycles (e.g., in/out systems)
Subclass 299: Decay heat removal
Subclass 349: Flux flattening

Class 370: Multiplex Communications

This is the generic class for multiplexing or duplexing systems, methods, or apparatus.

Subclass 252: Determination of communication parameters
Subclass 278: Transmit/receive interaction control
Subclass 280: Time division
Subclass 282: Transmit/receive interaction control
Subclass 286: Echo suppression or cancellation
Subclass 290: Using a particular adaptive filter
Subclass 320: Code division (CDMA)
Subclass 328: Having a plurality of contiguous regions served by respective fixed stations
Subclass 331: Hand-off control
Subclass 335: Combining or distributing information via code word channels using multiple access techniques (e.g., CDMA)
Subclass 336: Combining or distributing information via time channels
Subclass 337: Multiple access (e.g., TDMA)
Subclass 345: Combining or distributing information via time channels
Subclass 352: Combined circuit switching and packet switching
Subclass 390: Replicate messages for multiple destination distribution
Subclass 400: Having a plurality of nodes performing distributed switching
Subclass 481: Multiple frequency translations
Subclass 514: Unique synchronization word or unique bit sequence

Class 332: Modulators

A modulator combined with structure for measuring or indicating some aspect of the modulation process or characteristic of the modulated signal is classified here. Specifically, measurement or indication of a frequency or amplitude modulator A specific modulating signal source (e.g., microphone or photocell). A combination including both a modulator and a demodulator is classified.

Subclass 104: Including logic element (e.g., logic gate or flip-flop)
Subclass 119: Plural modulation
Subclass 127: Phase or frequency locked loop
Subclass 128: Modulating signal applied to plural elements of the loop

Class 342: Communications: Directive Radio Wave Systems And Devices (E.G., Radar, Radio Navigation)

Systems and processes for transmission or reception of radio wave energy for obtaining or utilizing information (using radio wave transmitters or receivers), as to an object, or as to the directional characteristics of the radio wave energy, per se. his class includes radar systems wherein radio wave energy from a transmitter is reflected or otherwise returned from an object to a receiver which may be at the same location as the transmitter; includes subsystems, components, and related processes which are limited to use in connection with the above. This class is limited to electromagnetic radio frequency waves in the radiation field.

Subclass 132: With pulse modulation (e.g., Chirp)
Subclass 201: Combined with pulse modulation
Subclass 361: Including polarized signal communication transmitter or receiver
Subclass 368: Including a steerable array
Subclass 379: Side lobe elimination

Class 331: Oscillators

This is the generic class for electrical oscillators.

Subclass 10: Plural A.F.S. for a single oscillator
Subclass 107A: Acoustoelectric device oscillators
Subclass 11: Plural comparators or discriminators
Subclass 17: Particular error voltage control (e.g., intergrating network)
Subclass 2: Plural oscillators controlled
Subclass 23: Sensing modulation (e.g., frequency modulation controlled oscillator
Subclass 25: Signal or phase comparator
Subclass 34: Particular frequency control means
Subclass 4: Search sweep of oscillator

Class 714: Error Detection/Correction And Fault Detection/Recovery

This class provides for process or apparatus for detecting and correcting errors in electrical pulse or pulse coded data; it also provides for process or apparatus for detecting and recovering from faults in electrical computers and digital data processing systems, as well as logic level based systems.

Subclass 34: Halt, clock, or interrupt signal (e.g., freezing, hardware breakpoint, single-stepping)
Subclass 35: Substituted or added instruction (e.g., code instrumenting, breakpoint instruction)
Subclass 701: Data formatting to improve error detection correction capability
Subclass 708: Shutdown or establishing system parameter (e.g., transmission rate)
Subclass 710: Replacement of memory spare location, portion, or segment
Subclass 711: Spare row or column
Subclass 733: Built-in testing circuit (BILBO)
Subclass 755: Double encoding codes (e.g., product, concatenated)
Subclass 758: Error correcting code with additional error detection code (e.g., cyclic redundancy character, parity)
Subclass 759: Look-up table encoding or decoding
Subclass 786: Forward error correction by tree code (e.g., convolutional)
Subclass 795: Viterbi decoding
Subclass 800: Parity bit
Subclass 804: Plural dimension parity check

Class 455: Telecommunications

This is the generic class for modulated carrier wave communications not elsewhere classifiable.

Subclass 3.04: With subscriber selection or switching
Subclass 3.05: Two-way
Subclass 402: Over power line
Subclass 410: Security or fraud prevention
Subclass 411: Privacy, lock-out, or authentication
Subclass 418: Programming control
Subclass 419: Remote programming control
Subclass 422.1: Zoned or cellular telephone system
Subclass 423: Diagnostic testing, malfunction indication, or electrical condition measurement
Subclass 425: Subscriber equipment
Subclass 426.1: Including other radio communication system (e.g., cordless telephone, paging, trunking, etc.)
Subclass 427: Space satellite
Subclass 434: Control or access channel scanning
Subclass 435.1: Registration
Subclass 437: Mobile assisted or initiated
Subclass 440: Based upon unit location
Subclass 442: Soft handoff
Subclass 450: Channel allocation
Subclass 452.1: Dynamic allocation
Subclass 452.2: Based on service quality (e.g., bandwidth, etc.)
Subclass 456.6: At remote station (i.e., mobile station)
Subclass 462: Including private cordless extension system
Subclass 463: Multi-users
Subclass 464: Channel selection or allocation
Subclass 465: Including public cordless extension system
Subclass 11.1: Portable or mobile repeater
Subclass 12.1: Space satellite
Subclass 16: Simultaneous using plural repeaters at each location
Subclass 41.2: Short range RF communication
Subclass 43: With modification of frequencies of analog signal passed (e.g., pre-emphasis and de-emphasis)
Subclass 500: Plural transmitters or receivers (i.e., more than two stations)
Subclass 515: Control channel monitoring (i.e., paging or access channel signaling) for system access
Subclass 522: Transmission power control technique
Subclass 524: Multiple base stations
Subclass 525: Base station selection
Subclass 63.1: Distortion, noise, or other interference prevention, reduction, or compensation
Subclass 63.2: System with hierarchical coverage areas
Subclass 63.4: Directional antenna
Subclass 66.1: Having diverse art device
Subclass 67.11: Having measuring, testing, or monitoring of system or part
Subclass 67.14: Using a test signal
Subclass 67.7: With indication (e.g., visual or voice signalling, etc.)
Subclass 71: Frequency control
Subclass 75: With frequency stabilization (e.g., automatic frequency control)
Subclass 76: Synthesizer
Subclass 78: With transmitter-receiver switching or interaction prevention
Subclass 83: Single antenna switched between transmitter and receiver
Subclass 84: With a common signal processing stage
Subclass 86: Transmitter oscillator used as local oscillator
Subclass 550.1: Radiotelephone equipment detail
Subclass 552.1: Operable on more than one system
Subclass 553.1: Radiotelephone having plural transceivers (e.g., for analog and digital, trunking and cellular, etc.)
Subclass 556.1: Integrated with other device
Subclass 557: Interface attached device (e.g., interface with modem, facsimile, computer, etc.)
Subclass 561: Base station detail
Subclass 562.1: Having specific antenna arrangement
Subclass 569.1: Hands-free or loudspeaking arrangement
Subclass 570: Noise suppression or echo cancellation
Subclass 572: Power supply
Subclass 574: Power conservation
Subclass 575.5: Antenna shielding
Subclass 575.7: Having specific antenna arrangement
Subclass 91: TRANSMITTER
Subclass 93: Convertible to different type (e.g., AM to FM)
Subclass 95: Mobile or portable
Subclass 101: Diversity
Subclass 102: Plural modulation
Subclass 106: Modulation by absorption, shielding, or reflecting
Subclass 110: Angle modulation
Subclass 112: With frequency multiplication or division
Subclass 114.2: Noise or interference elimination
Subclass 115.1: Measuring, testing, or monitoring of transmitter
Subclass 118: Frequency conversion
Subclass 126: With feedback of modulated output signal
Subclass 127.1: Power control, power supply, or bias voltage supply
Subclass 127.5: Power conservation
Subclass 134: By signal strength
Subclass 135: By signal quality (e.g., signal to noise ratio)
Subclass 138: With control (e.g., automatic gain control)
Subclass 140: Selectively actuated or controlled
Subclass 141: Including common stage (e.g., local oscillator)
Subclass 150.1: Signal selection based on frequency (e.g., tuning)
Subclass 161.3: Using signal strength or quality
Subclass 164.2: Processor controlled (AFC)
Subclass 180.3: With phase locked loop (PLL) tuning
Subclass 182.2: Automatic (AFC)
Subclass 183.1: With frequency synthesizer
Subclass 183.2: Processor controlled
Subclass 196.1: Including variation of local oscillator frequency
Subclass 197.2: Variable capacitor tuned
Subclass 200.1: With other control (e.g., volume, gain, bandwidth, etc.)
Subclass 214: With particular discriminator or detector
Subclass 222: Noise controlled
Subclass 224: Separate broadband detector channel
Subclass 226.1: Measuring or testing of receiver
Subclass 226.2: Signal strength
Subclass 226.3: Signal-to-noise ratio
Subclass 226.4: With meter or indicator
Subclass 228: Responsive to specified modulation (e.g., call alarm, Conelrad)
Subclass 230: Local control of receiver operation
Subclass 233.1: With diverse control (tone, etc.)
Subclass 234.1: Automatic
Subclass 240.1: Variable automatic gain control loop gain
Subclass 245.1: Automatic gain control signal derived from information signal
Subclass 245.2: Plural stages controlled
Subclass 247.1: Separate automatic gain control signals
Subclass 250.1: Automatic gain control to improve strong signal handling
Subclass 258: Utilizing particular local oscillator control
Subclass 260: Phase lock loop or frequency synthesizer
Subclass 264: Voltage control of oscillator
Subclass 266: Selectivity or bandwidth control
Subclass 267: Tone control
Subclass 269: With wave collector (e.g., antenna)
Subclass 271: Suppression of radiation from receiver via wave collector
Subclass 273: With particular output combining
Subclass 277.2: By signal quality (e.g., noise)
Subclass 284: Balancing or cancelling
Subclass 290: Including passive tuned circuit
Subclass 296: Noise or interference elimination
Subclass 299: Filter or rectification in power supply energized by fluctuating or a.c. source
Subclass 300: By shielding
Subclass 304: Phase shift in at least one path
Subclass 307: With specific filter structure
Subclass 310: Internally generated noise or oscillations
Subclass 311: In radio frequency amplifier, intermediate frequency amplifier or converter circuit
Subclass 312: In demodulator or low frequency (e.g., audio frequency)
Subclass 313: Frequency modifying or conversion
Subclass 315: With plural separate local oscillators
Subclass 318: With specified local oscillator structure or coupling
Subclass 323: Particular frequency conversion structure or circuitry
Subclass 324: Homodyne (i.e., zero beat or synchrodyne reception)
Subclass 326: With balanced mixer
Subclass 330: With nonlinear impedance (e.g., diode)
Subclass 333: Transistor or integrated circuit
Subclass 334: With particular receiver circuit
Subclass 339: Band pass filter
Subclass 341: Amplifier
Subclass 343.1: Having particular power or bias supply (including self-powered or battery saving means)
Subclass 348: With retractable or readily detachable chassis
Subclass 351: Transportable

Class 327: Miscellaneous Active Electrical Nonlinear Devices, Circuits, And Systems

This is the residual class for electrical devices, circuits or systems having an output not directly proportional to its input and comprising at least one component which can provide gain or can route electrical current and which device, circuit or system does not form a complete system such as is classified specifically elsewhere or a subcombination of utility only in such elsewhere classified system.

Subclass 103: Converting input voltage to output current or vice versa
Subclass 106: Having stored waveform data (e.g., in ROM, etc.)
Subclass 113: Frequency or repetition rate conversion or control
Subclass 115: Frequency division
Subclass 117: Frequency division
Subclass 118: Having discrete active device (e.g., transistor, triode, etc.)
Subclass 124: By periodic switching (e.g., chopper, etc.)
Subclass 129: Generating sinusoidal output
Subclass 156: Phase lock loop
Subclass 157: With charge pump
Subclass 158: With variable delay means
Subclass 160: With counter
Subclass 161: With delay means
Subclass 202: Master-slave bistable latch
Subclass 218: D type input
Subclass 244: With phase comparator or detector
Subclass 248: With adder
Subclass 26: With pulse width detecting
Subclass 262: Including significant compensation (e.g., temperature compensated delay, etc.)
Subclass 277: Including delay line or charge transfer device
Subclass 299: Single clock output with single clock input or data input
Subclass 355: Combining of plural signals
Subclass 359: Differential amplifier
Subclass 552: Active filter
Subclass 554: Switched capacitor filter
Subclass 557: Bandpass
Subclass 591: Tube performs plural functions

Class 330: Amplifiers

This is the generic class for amplifiers, included: Amplifiers having all types of active elements (or amplifying devices), amplifier systems having plural amplifier channels, cascade amplifiers, push-pull amplifiers and other amplifiers having plural amplifier devices. Also included are amplifiers with plural signal sources or plural loads. Amplifiers including the means coupling the signal source to the amplifier or coupling the amplifier to the load or between cascaded stages are also included. Amplifiers combined with tone control means. Amplifiers combined with amplitude (volume) control means whether by manual control, by control of an electrode D.C. bias. Amplifiers combined with power supply. Amplifiers combined with structural features of the amplifier or the amplifier circuit elements. Amplifiers having signal feedback means.

Subclass 109: Frequency responsive feedback means
Subclass 257: Having current mirror amplifier
Subclass 258: Having common mode rejection circuit
Subclass 259: Having D.C. feedback bias control for stabilization
Subclass 277: Including field effect transistor
Subclass 278: Including gain control means
Subclass 285: Having particular biasing means
Subclass 310: Including plural stages cascaded
Subclass 311: Having different configurations

Class 333: Wave Transmission Lines And Networks

Electric wave transmission systems wherein electromagnetic wave energy is guided or constrained by a wave transmission device of the long line type other than loaded lines. Included are passive wave transmission networks simulating the characteristics of a long line wave transmission systems or wave guides, such as artificial lines, delay networks, resonators, impedance matching networks, equalizers, wave filters and transmission line terminations. Passive coupling networks and terminating networks having either lumped or distributed electrical circuit parameters and having impedance characteristics. Smoothing type wave filters having shunt capacitance, or series inductance. Networks including a wave transmission device and means for decreasing the amplitude range of the signal applied to the transmission device as the signal increases in amplitude and means for increasing or restoring the amplitude range of the signal after the transmission over the transmission device. Passive networks for producing an output wave which is the time derivative or time integral of the input wave. Systems including active elements for producing across at least two of the system terminals a negative resistance, and/or an inductance, or capacitance which may be positive or negative. Wave traps using long line elements.

Subclass 109: Using directional coupler
Subclass 112: Having lumped parameters or impedances
Subclass 172: RC or RL type
Subclass 173: Synchronous filters

Class 341: Coded Data Generation Or Conversion

1) originating or emitting a coded set of discrete signals or 2) translating one code into another code wherein the information signal content remains the same but the formats may differ. For classification herein, at least one of the codes must be a set of pulses or digits and electrical in nature.

Subclass 139: Automatic control for increasing converter range (e.g., gain ranging, automatic gain control)
Subclass 143: Differential encoder and/or decoder (e.g., delta modulation, differential pulse code modulation)
Subclass 144: Digital to analog conversion
Subclass 152: With intermediate conversion of digital value to time interval
Subclass 155: Analog to digital conversion
Subclass 172: Using charge transfer devices (e.g., charge coupled devices, charge transfer by switched capacitances)
Subclass 56: To or from multi-level codes

Class 329: Demodulators

A demodulator is a device which extracts an arbitrarily varying information carrying signal from a signal formed by varying a characteristic of a repetitious electrical or electromagnetic wave of less than infrared frequency in accordance with this information carrying signal. Classification herein is broadly by the type of modulation exhibited by the input signal. Combinations with basic subject matter included in this class: a demodulator combined with perfecting structure or incorporated in other structure.

Subclass 306: Input signal combined with local oscillator or carrier frequency signal
Subclass 308: With parallel signal combiners (e.g., Costas loop)
Subclass 320: By cancelling distortion, noise or other interference
Subclass 336: Input signal combined with phase shifted or delayed portion of input signal
Subclass 363: Input signal split into plural signals

Class 343: Communications: Radio Wave Antennas

Antennas for the transmission of radio wave energy through the natural media - air, earth, water, etc. for point-to-point communication or for the reception of such transmitted radio wave energy. Aparatus and systems which constitute part of an antenna transmission or reception.

Subclass 702: With radio cabinet
Subclass 841: With electrical shield

Class 361: Electricity: Electrical Systems And Devices

Systems or devices which provide safety and protection for other systems and devices; control circuits for electromagnetic devices and non-electromagnetic-type relays. Systems or devices which discharge, or prevent the accumulation of electrical charge on or in an object or material; circuits for charging objects or materials. Systems for generating or conducting an electric charge. Systems which process electrical speed signals. Circuits for reversing the polarity of an electric circuit. Systems which cause the ignition of a fuel or an explosive charge. Systems and processes for demagnetizing a magnetic field. Transformers and inductors with integral switch, capacitor or lock. Electrostatic capacitors, per se. Housings and mounting assemblies with plural diverse electrical components. Electrolytic systems and devices.

Subclass 31: Current
Subclass 737: IC card or card member

Class 439: Electrical Connectors

This is the generic class for a pair of mated conductors comprising at least two electrically conducting elements which are interconnected to permit relative motion of such conducting elements during use without a break in electrical conductivity therebetween. Also, this is the generic class for a device constituting an electricity conducting contact between conductors of electricity; wherein the joint is of a type which may be readily made and broken, repeatedly by attachment and detachment of contact supporting structure on each conductor.

Subclass 357: Resilient finger
Subclass 70: Dual inline package (DIP)
Subclass 83: Contact soldered to panel circuit

Class 708: Electrical Computers: Arithmetic Processing And Calculating

This is the generic class for electrical apparatus and corresponding methods for performing calculation operations. There are three main divisions: 1. electrical hybrid calculating computers; 2. electrical digital calculating computers; 3. electrical analog calculating computers.

Subclass 290: Interpolation/extrapolation
Subclass 670: Addition/subtraction

Class 326: Electronic Digital Logic Circuitry

This is the generic class for electronic digital logic devices, circuitry and subcombinations thereof, wherein non-arithmetical operations are performed upon discrete electrical signals representing a value normally described by numerical digits.

Subclass 127: Current mode logic (CML)
Subclass 18: Bipolar transistor
Subclass 75: Bipolar transistor

Class 712: Electrical Computers And Digital Processing Systems: Processing Architectures And Instruction Processing (E.G., Processors)

This class provides, within a computer or digital data processing system, for subject matter represented by a particular arrangement that includes at least one of the following means: 1. components of an individual complete processor, which may be formed on a single integrated circuit (IC); 2. components of a complete digital data processing system; 3. plural processors; or 4. plural digital data processing systems; wherein the particular arrangement further includes at least one of the following functions: (a) processing instruction data for specific processor architectures; (b) accessing or retrieving instruction data of a fixed or variable length from a buffer or other memory and shifting the instruction data to align it with a physical boundary of a buffer or other memory; (c) locating and retrieving instruction data for processing; (d) determining via internal hardware, firmware or software operations the meaning of operation codes, control bits, or operands of instruction data; (e) dispatching instruction data for execution (e.g., designating a register after resolving data conflicts); (f) dynamically testing instruction data and operands to assess conflicts related to data or hardware-resource availability (e.g., identifying data dependencies or utilization conflicts, attempting to resolve such dependencies or conflicts, or both); and (g) dynamically controlling the execution, processing, or sequencing of instruction data within a processor.

Subclass 32: Microprocessor or multichip or multimodule processor having sequential program control
Subclass 42: Operation
Subclass 209: Decoding instruction to accommodate plural instruction interpretations (e.g., different dialects, languages, emulation, etc.)
Subclass 210: Decoding instruction to accommodate variable length instruction or operand
Subclass 218: Commitment control or register bypass
Subclass 244: Exeception processing (e.g., interrupts and traps)
Subclass 245: Processing sequence control (i.e., microsequencing)
Subclass E9.031: With implied specifier, e.g., top of stack (EPO)
Subclass E9.035: With operation extension or modification (EPO)
Subclass E9.046: Data or operand accessing, e.g., operand prefetch, operand bypass (EPO)

Class 340: Communications: Electrical

Communications - the handling of information or intelligence, restricted to the conveying of said information or intelligence between geographically spaced points. Information or intelligence is defined as being, matter which is handled by signaling systems or signaling devices (such as telegraph systems) or by that portion of nonsignaling systems or nonsignaling devices (such as power supply systems) which is designated in the arts as having a control function (such as the supervisory circuits which control the circuit breakers of an electric power network). Handling, as used above, is defined as being the active coaction between the tangible communication system or device and the intangible information or intelligence, and such coaction may assume various forms, such as transmission, storage, exhibiting, etc.

Subclass 870.07: Combined (TM system with other system)
Subclass 870.08: Radio dial
Subclass 870.12: Frequency division multiplex
Subclass 870.26: Frequency variation
Subclass 572.1: Detectable device on protected article (e.g., tag)
Subclass 664: Current
Subclass 384.4: Electronic siren (e.g., wail tone or yelp tone warning device)
Subclass 384.7: Electronic

Class 324: Electricity: Measuring And Testing

This is the residual home for all subject matter, not elsewhere classified, relating to the measuring, testing (or sensing) of electric properties, (e.g., determining ground resistivity, determining frequency of an alternating current, determining kilowatt hour demand), or the measuring, testing or sensing of nonelectric properties by electric means (e.g., determining moisture, a nonelectric property, by measuring conductance with a resistance bridge; determining speed, a nonelectric property by use of an electric tachometer).

Subclass 522: By voltage or current measuring

Class 704: Data Processing:Speech Signal Processing, Linguistics, Language Translation, And Audio Compression/Decompression

This is the generic class for apparatus and corresponding methods for constructing, analyzing, and modifying units of human language by data processing, in which there is a significant change in the data.This class also provides for systems or methods that process speech signals for storage, transmission, recognition, or synthesis of speech; and for systems or methods for bandwidth compression or expansion of an audio signal, or for time compression or expansion of an audio signal. There are three main divisions: linguistics; speech signal processing; and audio compression.

Subclass 201: For storage or transmission
Subclass 221: Pattern matching vocoders
Subclass 226: Noise
Subclass 233: Detect speech in noise
Subclass 243: Creating patterns for matching
Subclass 256: Markov
Subclass 256.2: Training of HMM (EPO)
Subclass E15.011: To speaker (EPO)
Subclass E19.01: Using spectral analysis, e.g., transform vocoders, subband vocoders, perceptual audio coders, psychoacoustically based lossy encoding, etc., e.g., MPEG audio, Dolby AC-3, etc. (EPO)
Subclass E21.004: Speech corrupted by noise (EPO)

Class 379: Telephonic Communications

(1) Systems, processes and instruments for the two-way electrical transmission of intelligible audio information having arbitrary content over a link including an electrical conductor, between spaced apart locations, so as to enable conversation therebetween, and intended for the private use of a listener or a group of listeners. The term "intelligible" used above is intended to include the capability for transmission of speech or the like (e.g., music), rather than restriction to a specified audible signal, such as a bell or buzzer. (2) Switching, signalling or signal transmission peculiar to, or specified as for a telephone or a telephone system, except for multiplex communications as indicated in Lines With Other Classes.

Subclass 56.3: Including infra-red link with landline telephone network
Subclass 88.1: Including data compression
Subclass 88.26: Recording voice message from non subscriber caller
Subclass 93.23: Having user information display (e.g., telephone number, name, address, etc.)
Subclass 93.35: Having call-waiting
Subclass 142.04: Extracting call ID from transmitted signal
Subclass 142.07: Routing an incoming call on multiple lines to a particular appliance (e.g., facsimile, computer, or telephone)
Subclass 142.08: Call waiting associated with caller ID information
Subclass 164: Line status indication or call alerting
Subclass 215.01: Call Waiting
Subclass 257: For calling station (e.g., status or progress tones)
Subclass 406.02: Combined diverse function
Subclass 406.03: Additional signal enhancement (e.g., voice processing or recognition)
Subclass 406.04: Disable or inhibit function
Subclass 406.05: Residual echo cancellation
Subclass 406.06: Using digital signal processing
Subclass 406.07: Using attenuator
Subclass 406.08: Adaptive filtering
Subclass 406.09: Least mean squares (LMS) algorithm
Subclass 406.1: With training sequence
Subclass 406.11: Convolution processing
Subclass 406.12: Frequency domain analysis
Subclass 406.13: Fourier analysis
Subclass 406.14: Sub-band analysis
Subclass 406.15: Additional analog processing
Subclass 406.16: Having analog variolosser or attenuator
Subclass 388.02: Speakerphone with build-in microphone
Subclass 390.01: Amplification or attenuation level control
Subclass 420.01: Having loudspeaking conversation capability (e.g., hands- free type or speakerphone)

Class 323: Electricity: Power Supply Or Regulation Systems

This is the generic class for electrical systems wherein a single electrical source is coupled to a single electrical load circuit and means are provided which control the magnitude or level of the current or voltage of either or both of said circuits and/or the phase angle between the current or voltage of either or both of said circuits. This is also the generic class for transformer systems and impedance systems.

Subclass 283: Digitally controlled
Subclass 370: With capacitor

Class 710: Electrical Computers And Digital Data Processing Systems: Input/Output

This class provides, within a computer or digital data processing system with the following processes or apparatus for 1. transferring data from one or more peripherals to one or more computers or digital data processing systems for the latter to process, store, or further transfer or for transferring data from the computers or digital data processing systems to the peripherals; 2. for interconnecting or communicating between two or more components connected to an interconnection medium (e.g., a bus) within a single computer or digital data processing system; 3. for preventing access to a shared resource of a computer or digital data processing system; 4. for granting access to a shared resource of a computer of digital data processing system by one of a plurality of components of the computer or digital data processing system by interrogating each of the components in a predetermined order; 5. for determining which of a plurality of components of a computer or digital data processing system contending for access to a shared resource shall be granted access at any one time based upon a predetermined criteria; and 6. for stopping, halting, or suspending a current processing function within a computer or digital data processing system.

Subclass 22: Direct Memory Accessing (DMA)
Subclass 25: Timing
Subclass 29: Flow controlling
Subclass 32: Transfer termination
Subclass 53: Alternately filling or emptying buffers
Subclass 58: Input/Output process timing
Subclass 64: Via common units and peripheral-specific units
Subclass 266: Programmable interrupt processing

Class 365: Static Information Storage And Retrieval

Apparatus or corresponding processes for the static storage and retrieval of information. For classification herein, the storage system must be (1) static, (2) a singular storage element or plural elements of the same type, (3) addressable.

Subclass 200: Bad bit
Subclass 201: Testing

Class 384: Bearings

Bearings, designed for general use, where one element continuously bears the weight of another, either suspended, or imposed, and wherein there is either linear motion, rotary motion, or oscillating movement, between the two elements. The bearings may have either sliding, or rolling contact with the supported member. The class includes (a) supports for bearings; (b) antifriction means; and (c) lubricating devices.

Subclass 104: Plural ends fixed
Subclass 107: Radial and thrust

Class 84: Music

Instruments used in producing music and includes (1) electrical music instruments, (2) automatic instruments, and (3) those hand played. The automatic instruments and the hand played instruments have a parallel classification so far as seems practical, and in both the patents are divided in the usual way into four groups, stringed, wind, rigid vibrators, and membranes.

Subclass 694: Modulation
Subclass 169: Indicators

Class 701: Data Processing:Vehicles, Navigation, And Relative Location

This class provides for electrical computers, digital data processing systems, and data processing processes for transferring data between computers or processes wherein the computers or processes employ the data before or after transferring and the employing affects the transfer of data therebetween. This class is for electricalapparatus and corresponding methods for performing data processing operations in which there is a significant change in the data or for performing calculation operations wherein the electrical data processing system or calculating computer functions to indicate a condition of a vehicle, to regulate the movement of a vehicle, to monitor the operation of a vehicle, or to solve a diagnostic problem with the vehicle. It also provides electrical apparatus and corresponding methods wherein the electrical data processing system or calculating computer function to determine the course, position, or distance traveled. It further provides electrical apparatus and corresponding methods wherein the electrical data processing system or calculating computer functions to determine the relative location of an object (e.g., person or vehicle) and may include communication of the determined relative location to a remote location. In this class there are three main divisions: 1. vehicle control, guidance, operation or indication; 2. navigation; 3. relative location

Subclass 13: Spacecraft or satellite

Class 345: Computer Graphics Processing And Selective Visual Display Systems

Processes and apparatus for selective electrical control of two or more light-generating or light-controlling display elements* in accordance with a received or stored image data signal. The image data includes character, graphical information or display attribute data. The image data may include, for example, information data from a peripheral input device, from the reception of a television signal, from the recognition of image data, or from the generation or creation of image data by a computer.

Subclass 180: Light pen for CRT display

Class 702: Data Processing:Measuring, Calibrating, Or Testing

This class provides for apparatus and corresponding methods wherein the data processing system or calculating computer is designed for or utilized in an environment relating to a specific or generic measurement system, a calibration or correction system, or a testing system.

Subclass 107: Circuit tuning (e.g., potentiometer, amplifier)
Subclass 122: Including specific communication means
Subclass 69: Signal quality (e.g., timing jitter, distortion, signal-to-noise ratio)
Subclass 75: Frequency

Class 713: Electrical Computers And Digital Processing Systems: Support

This class provides, within a computer or digital data processing system, for the following processes or apparatus for: 1. establishing original operating parameters or data for a computer or digital data processing system, such as, allocating extended or expanded memory, specifying device drivers, paths, files, buffers, disk management, etc.; 2. for changing system settings or operational modes in a computer or digital data processing system after they have been set; 3. for increasing a systemís extension of protection of system hardware,software, or data frm maliciously caused destruction, unauthorized modification, or unauthorized disclosure; 4. for modifying or responding to the available power to a computer or digital data processing system or programmable calculator; 5. for synchronization of two or more processors; 6. wherein a clock or timing signals, timing pulses, or data associated with the control or regulation of any one or combination of processing components, memory components, and peripheral components are caused to operate in synchronization; 7. for generation, division, or distribution of clock signals, pulse signals, or timing signals in a computer or digital data processing system from one or more sources into groups of continuous and successive time increments, and including event timing and counting, and the correction of the clock signals, pulse signals, or timing signals; 8. wherein there is a significant temporal, incremental or sequencing control provided to one or more computers, digital data processing systems, processors, memory, or peripherals, or to data transmission between these systems or components.


Class 348: Television

Generating, processing, transmitting or transiently displaying a sequence of images, either locally or remotely, in which the local light variations composing the images may change with time.

Subclass E5.108: For the reception of a digital modulated video signal (EPO)
Subclass E5.113: Demodulation-circuits (EPO)

Class 380: Cryptography

Equipment and processes which (a) conceal or obscure intelligible information by transforming such information so as to make the information unintelligible to a casual or unauthorized recipient, or (b) extract intelligible information from such a concealed representation, including breaking of unknown codes and messages.

Subclass 270: Wireless communication

Class 381: Electrical Audio Signal Processing Systems And Devices

This class provides for: (a) wired one-way electrical transmission or processing systems for audio signals, (b) Stereophonic systems, which are not elsewhere classified, (c) instrument or process for converting an electrical audio information signal to or from humanly audible form.

Subclass 71.11: Adaptive filter topology
Subclass 71.12: Algorithm or formula (e.g., LMS, Filtered-X, etc.)
Subclass 94.2: Spectral adjustment
Subclass 94.3: In multiple frequency bands

Class 377: Electrical Pulse Counters, Pulse Dividers, Or Shift Registers: Circuits And Systems

This is the generic class for circuits or devices for making a count of electrical pulses; for circuits or devices for producing output pulses which are a fraction of the number of input. Also included are pulse multipliers which make use of pulse dividing circuits.

Subclass 47: Pulse multiplication or division
Subclass 48: Multiplication or division by a fraction

Class 700: Data Processing: Generic Control Systems Or Specific Applications

This class is structured into two main divisions: (1)for the combination of a data processing or calculating computer apparatus (or corresponding methods for performing data processing or calculating operations) AND a device or apparatus controlled thereby, the entirety hereinafter referred to as a "control system". (2)for data processing or calculating computer apparatus (or corresponding methods for performing data processing or calculating operations) wherein the data processing or calculating computer apparatus is designed for or utilized in a particular art device, system, process, or environment, or is utilized for the solution of a particular problem in a field other than mathematics (arithmetic processing per se is classified elsewhere).

Subclass 39: Test signal