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Patent Summary

U.S. Patent Classes & Classifications Covered in this listing:

Class 430: Radiation Imagery Chemistry: Process, Composition, Or Product Thereof

This is the generic class for: (1) Forming the likeness of an object, or an instrumented or discernible phenomenon, in a chemically defined receiver or in a receiver wherein radiation produces a chemical reaction, by use of radiation. (2) Finishing an image by chemical processing regardless how formed. (3) A radiation sensitive receiver, composition, or product disclosed solely for radiation imagery chemistry, and process of making same. (4) A nonradiation sensitive-receiver, composition, or product. (5) An imaged product by a process or employing a receiver, composition, or product.

Subclass 166: Including additional layer
Subclass 192: Polymeric mixture
Subclass 313: With formation of resist image, and etching of substrate or material deposition
Subclass 315: Material deposition only
Subclass 325: Post image treatment to produce elevated pattern

Class 156: Adhesive Bonding And Miscellaneous Chemical Manufacture

This is the generic class for: Manufacturing processes and apparatus; manufacture of articles of commerce in which one of the manufacturing steps includes a chemical reaction; manufacture of panels from settable inorganic compositions; manufacture of electrical conductors of indefinite length.

Subclass 326: Organic containing

Class 216: Etching A Substrate: Processes

Chemical etching processes for treating articles of commerce or intermediate articles not otherwise provided for in which one of the manufacturing steps includes a chemical etching step (use of an etchant) and wherein the material treated is not completely removed.

Subclass 67: Using plasma

Class 327: Miscellaneous Active Electrical Nonlinear Devices, Circuits, And Systems

This is the residual class for electrical devices, circuits or systems having an output not directly proportional to its input and comprising at least one component which can provide gain or can route electrical current and which device, circuit or system does not form a complete system such as is classified specifically elsewhere or a subcombination of utility only in such elsewhere classified system.

Subclass 101: Converting input current or voltage to output frequency
Subclass 103: Converting input voltage to output current or vice versa
Subclass 291: Clock or pulse waveform generating
Subclass 295: Plural outputs
Subclass 309: By limiting, clipping, or clamping
Subclass 310: Transient or signal noise reduction
Subclass 327: Using only transistor active elements
Subclass 434: Insulated gate FET (e.g., MOSFET, etc.)
Subclass 50: By amplitude
Subclass 538: Stabilized (e.g., compensated, regulated, maintained, etc.)
Subclass 543: Using field-effect transistor
Subclass 552: Active filter
Subclass 553: Adjustable
Subclass 65: Differential input

Class 330: Amplifiers

This is the generic class for amplifiers, included: Amplifiers having all types of active elements (or amplifying devices), amplifier systems having plural amplifier channels, cascade amplifiers, push-pull amplifiers and other amplifiers having plural amplifier devices. Also included are amplifiers with plural signal sources or plural loads. Amplifiers including the means coupling the signal source to the amplifier or coupling the amplifier to the load or between cascaded stages are also included. Amplifiers combined with tone control means. Amplifiers combined with amplitude (volume) control means whether by manual control, by control of an electrode D.C. bias. Amplifiers combined with power supply. Amplifiers combined with structural features of the amplifier or the amplifier circuit elements. Amplifiers having signal feedback means.

Subclass 286: Including distributed parameter-type coupling
Subclass 295: Including plural amplifier channels

Class 323: Electricity: Power Supply Or Regulation Systems

This is the generic class for electrical systems wherein a single electrical source is coupled to a single electrical load circuit and means are provided which control the magnitude or level of the current or voltage of either or both of said circuits and/or the phase angle between the current or voltage of either or both of said circuits. This is also the generic class for transformer systems and impedance systems.

Subclass 315: Including parallel paths (e.g., current mirror)
Subclass 316: With amplifier connected to or between current paths

Class 257: Active Solid-State Devices (E.G., Transistors, Solid-State Diodes)

This class provides for active solid-state electronic devices, that is, electronic devices or components that are made up primarily of solid materials, usually semiconductors, which operate by the movement of charge carriers - electrons or holes - which undergo energy level changes within the material and can modify an input voltage to achieve rectification, amplification, or switching action, and are not classified elsewhere.

Subclass 231: 2-dimensional area architecture
Subclass 259: Elongated active region acts as transmission line or distributed active element (e.g., transmission line field effect transistor)
Subclass 314: Variable threshold (e.g., floating gate memory device)
Subclass 315: With floating gate electrode
Subclass 339: With means to increase breakdown voltage
Subclass 390: Matrix or array of field effect transistors (e.g., array of FETs only some of which are completed, or structure for mask programmed read-only memory (ROM))
Subclass 401: With specified physical layout (e.g., ring gate, source/drain regions shared between plural FETs, plural sections connected in parallel to form power MOSFET)
Subclass 409: With means to increase breakdown voltage (e.g., field shield electrode, guard ring, etc.)
Subclass 488: Field relief electrode
Subclass 489: Resistive
Subclass 490: Combined with floating pn junction guard region
Subclass 509: Combined with pn junction isolation (e.g., isoplanar, LOCOS)
Subclass 528: Passive components in ICs
Subclass 557: Lateral bipolar transistor structure
Subclass 558: With base region doping concentration step or gradient or with means to increase current gain
Subclass 559: With active region formed along groove or exposed edge in semiconductor
Subclass 578: With enlarged emitter area (e.g., power device)
Subclass 579: With separate emitter areas connected in parallel
Subclass 580: With current ballasting means (e.g., emitter ballasting resistors or base current ballasting means)
Subclass 582: With current ballasting means (e.g., emitter ballasting resistors or base current ballasting resistors)
Subclass 587: With specified electrode means
Subclass 592: With base region having specified doping concentration profile or specified configuration (e.g., inactive base more heavily doped than active base or base region has constant doping concentration portion (e.g., epitaxial base))
Subclass 660: With means to shield device contained in housing or package from charged particles (e.g., alpha particles) or highly ionizing radiation (i.e., hard X-rays or shorter wavelength)
Subclass 666: LEAD FRAME
Subclass 668: On insulating carrier other than a printed circuit board
Subclass 676: With structure for mounting semiconductor chip to lead frame (e.g., configuration of die bonding flag, absence of a die bonding flag, recess for LED)
Subclass 680: With window means
Subclass 700: Multiple contact layers separated from each other by insulator means and forming part of a package or housing (e.g., plural ceramic layer package)
Subclass 703: Composite ceramic, or single ceramic with metal
Subclass 704: Cap or lid
Subclass 712: With provision for cooling the housing or its contents
Subclass 713: For integrated circuit
Subclass 727: Device held in place by clamping
Subclass 728: For high frequency (e.g., microwave) device
Subclass 729: Portion of housing of specific materials
Subclass 731: With housing mount
Subclass 732: Flanged mount
Subclass 784: Wire contact, lead, or bond
Subclass 787: ENCAPSULATED
Subclass E29.044: Base region of bipolar transistors (EPO)
Subclass E29.086: Further characterized by doping material (EPO)
Subclass E29.174: Bipolar junction transistor
Subclass E29.176: Device being resistive element (e.g., ballasting resistor) (EPO)
Subclass E29.279: Asymmetrical source and drain regions (EPO)
Subclass E29.346: Trench capacitor (EPO)
Subclass E23.01: Arrangements for conducting electric current to or from solid-state body in operation, e.g., leads, terminal arrangements (EPO)
Subclass E23.031: Lead frames or other flat leads (EPO)
Subclass E23.037: Characterized by die pad (EPO)
Subclass E23.044: For devices adapted for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating, or switching, capacitors, or resistors with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier (EPO)
Subclass E23.069: Spherical bumps on substrate for external connection, e.g., ball grid arrays (BGA) (EPO)
Subclass E23.077: Materials of insulating layers or coatings (EPO)
Subclass E23.084: With bolts or screws (EPO)
Subclass E23.09: Auxiliary members in containers characterized by their shape, e.g., pistons (EPO)
Subclass E23.181: Characterized by shape of container or parts, e.g., caps, walls (EPO)
Subclass E23.193: Characterized by material or arrangement of seals between parts, e.g., between cap and base of container or between leads and walls of container (EPO)
Subclass E23.194: Protection against mechanical damage (EPO)
Subclass E21.004: Of resistor (EPO)
Subclass E21.039: Process specially adapted to improve the resolution of the mask (EPO)
Subclass E21.336: Of electrically active species (EPO)
Subclass E21.375: Silicon vertical transistor (EPO)
Subclass E21.379: With single crystalline emitter, collector or base including extrinsic, link or graft base formed on th e silicon substrate, e.g., by epitaxy, recrystallization, after insulating device isolation (EPO)
Subclass E21.504: Moulds (EPO)
Subclass E21.525: Procedures, i.e., sequence of activities consisting of plurality of measurement and correction, marking or sorting steps (EPO)
Subclass E21.608: Bipolar technology (EPO)

Class 341: Coded Data Generation Or Conversion

1) originating or emitting a coded set of discrete signals or 2) translating one code into another code wherein the information signal content remains the same but the formats may differ. For classification herein, at least one of the codes must be a set of pulses or digits and electrical in nature.

Subclass 143: Differential encoder and/or decoder (e.g., delta modulation, differential pulse code modulation)
Subclass 155: Analog to digital conversion

Class 438: Semiconductor Device Manufacturing: Process

This class provides for manufacturing a semiconductor containing a solid-state device for the following purposes: (a) conducting or modifying an electrical current, (b) storing electrical energy for subsequent discharge within a microelectronic integrated circuit, or (c) converting electromagnetic wave energy to electrical energy or electrical energy to electromagnetic energy. Also operations involving: (1) coating a substrate with a semiconductive material, or (2) coating a semiconductive substrate or substrate containing a semiconductive region. It also provides for operations involving etching a semiconductive substrate or etching a substrate containing a semiconductive region. The class provides for packaging or treatment of packaged semiconductor.

Subclass 243: Trench capacitor
Subclass 253: Stacked capacitor
Subclass 321: Utilizing dummy emitter
Subclass 325: Having lateral bipolar transistor
Subclass 335: Forming lateral transistor structure
Subclass 373: Multiple ion implantation steps
Subclass 374: Using same conductivity-type dopant
Subclass 375: Forming partially overlapping regions
Subclass 383: Lightly doped junction isolated resistor
Subclass 386: Trench capacitor
Subclass 387: Having stacked capacitor structure (e.g., stacked trench, buried stacked capacitor, etc.)
Subclass 391: Including isolation means formed in trench

Class 338: Electrical Resistors

Electrical resistors with solid, granular, or liquid resistance elements. These resistors may be either fixed or variable in resistance value. Semiconductors are included if limited by claimed subject matter to resistance properties, such as exists in photoconductive and thermistor type resistors. Included also are resistors with perfecting structure such as resistors whose resistance value is temperature compensated, or mounted on wheels or on a vehicle, resistors with heat dissipating projections, or with cooling gas or liquid circulation, or with heat storing, or with inductance or capacity reducing, or with electrical shields, or with a cleaner or a setting indicator in a mechanically variable resistor, or with a casing or housing, or with protecting structure spaced from the element, or with mounting or supporting means. Included also are resistors combined with or incorporated in other structure, as are resistors constructed as by shape or from material to change their resistance value particularly well in response to a particular condition or change in a particular condition such as current and/or voltage. Included are resistors usually of the mechanically variable type together with a condition sensing actuator which changes the mechanical adjustment of the resistor in response to a condition or a change in condition.

Subclass 308: Resistance element coated on base
Subclass 309: Terminal coated on
Subclass 34: Gas, vapor, or moisture absorbing or collecting

Class 702: Data Processing:Measuring, Calibrating, Or Testing

This class provides for apparatus and corresponding methods wherein the data processing system or calculating computer is designed for or utilized in an environment relating to a specific or generic measurement system, a calibration or correction system, or a testing system.

Subclass 117: Of circuit
Subclass 182: Performance or efficiency evaluation
Subclass 81: Quality evaluation
Subclass 82: Having judging means (e.g., accept/reject)

Class 714: Error Detection/Correction And Fault Detection/Recovery

This class provides for process or apparatus for detecting and correcting errors in electrical pulse or pulse coded data; it also provides for process or apparatus for detecting and recovering from faults in electrical computers and digital data processing systems, as well as logic level based systems.

Subclass 25: Fault locating (i.e., diagnosis or testing)
Subclass 701: Data formatting to improve error detection correction capability
Subclass 728: Random pattern generation (includes pseudorandom pattern)
Subclass 733: Built-in testing circuit (BILBO)
Subclass 790: Puncturing
Subclass 795: Viterbi decoding

Class 361: Electricity: Electrical Systems And Devices

Systems or devices which provide safety and protection for other systems and devices; control circuits for electromagnetic devices and non-electromagnetic-type relays. Systems or devices which discharge, or prevent the accumulation of electrical charge on or in an object or material; circuits for charging objects or materials. Systems for generating or conducting an electric charge. Systems which process electrical speed signals. Circuits for reversing the polarity of an electric circuit. Systems which cause the ignition of a fuel or an explosive charge. Systems and processes for demagnetizing a magnetic field. Transformers and inductors with integral switch, capacitor or lock. Electrostatic capacitors, per se. Housings and mounting assemblies with plural diverse electrical components. Electrolytic systems and devices.

Subclass 707: Through support means
Subclass 719: Circuit board mounted
Subclass 748: Printed circuit board

Class 439: Electrical Connectors

This is the generic class for a pair of mated conductors comprising at least two electrically conducting elements which are interconnected to permit relative motion of such conducting elements during use without a break in electrical conductivity therebetween. Also, this is the generic class for a device constituting an electricity conducting contact between conductors of electricity; wherein the joint is of a type which may be readily made and broken, repeatedly by attachment and detachment of contact supporting structure on each conductor.

Subclass 73: With external, contact enhancing clamp

Class 326: Electronic Digital Logic Circuitry

This is the generic class for electronic digital logic devices, circuitry and subcombinations thereof, wherein non-arithmetical operations are performed upon discrete electrical signals representing a value normally described by numerical digits.

Subclass 27: With field effect-transistor

Class 331: Oscillators

This is the generic class for electrical oscillators.

Subclass 116FE: Field-effect transistor active element
Subclass 158: Crystal
Subclass 179: Step-frequency change (e.g., band selection, frequency-shift keying)

Class 379: Telephonic Communications

(1) Systems, processes and instruments for the two-way electrical transmission of intelligible audio information having arbitrary content over a link including an electrical conductor, between spaced apart locations, so as to enable conversation therebetween, and intended for the private use of a listener or a group of listeners. The term "intelligible" used above is intended to include the capability for transmission of speech or the like (e.g., music), rather than restriction to a specified audible signal, such as a bell or buzzer. (2) Switching, signalling or signal transmission peculiar to, or specified as for a telephone or a telephone system, except for multiplex communications as indicated in Lines With Other Classes.

Subclass 406.05: Residual echo cancellation
Subclass 406.08: Adaptive filtering
Subclass 400: For line length compensation

Class 332: Modulators

A modulator combined with structure for measuring or indicating some aspect of the modulation process or characteristic of the modulated signal is classified here. Specifically, measurement or indication of a frequency or amplitude modulator A specific modulating signal source (e.g., microphone or photocell). A combination including both a modulator and a demodulator is classified.

Subclass 112: Pulse position, frequency, phase, or spacing modulator

Class 29: Metal Working

Metal working or shaping - it comprises processes, tools, machines, and apparatus not classifiable in the specific classes relating to the manufacture of articles from metal. It has been made the generic class for the following regardless of the composition of the blank, stock material, or article recited or worked upon: (a) process of electric condenser making; (b) a burnishing process; (c) a process of manufacture; (d) apparatus used to assemble or disassemble.

Subclass 610.1: Resistor making
Subclass 846: Manufacturing circuit on or in base
Subclass 425: Shaping mating parts for reassembly in different positions

Class 333: Wave Transmission Lines And Networks

Electric wave transmission systems wherein electromagnetic wave energy is guided or constrained by a wave transmission device of the long line type other than loaded lines. Included are passive wave transmission networks simulating the characteristics of a long line wave transmission systems or wave guides, such as artificial lines, delay networks, resonators, impedance matching networks, equalizers, wave filters and transmission line terminations. Passive coupling networks and terminating networks having either lumped or distributed electrical circuit parameters and having impedance characteristics. Smoothing type wave filters having shunt capacitance, or series inductance. Networks including a wave transmission device and means for decreasing the amplitude range of the signal applied to the transmission device as the signal increases in amplitude and means for increasing or restoring the amplitude range of the signal after the transmission over the transmission device. Passive networks for producing an output wave which is the time derivative or time integral of the input wave. Systems including active elements for producing across at least two of the system terminals a negative resistance, and/or an inductance, or capacitance which may be positive or negative. Wave traps using long line elements.

Subclass 172: RC or RL type

Class 363: Electric Power Conversion Systems

Conversion systems wherein a single electrical source circuit is coupled to a single electrical load circuit.

Subclass 21.1: Utilizing pulse-width modulation
Subclass 21.18: Utilizing pulse-width modulation
Subclass 49: With starting arrangement
Subclass 97: With transistor control means in the line circuit

Class 370: Multiplex Communications

This is the generic class for multiplexing or duplexing systems, methods, or apparatus.

Subclass 395.5: Multiprotocol network
Subclass 395.7: Having detail of switch memory reading/writing
Subclass 444: With priority resolution

Class 710: Electrical Computers And Digital Data Processing Systems: Input/Output

This class provides, within a computer or digital data processing system with the following processes or apparatus for 1. transferring data from one or more peripherals to one or more computers or digital data processing systems for the latter to process, store, or further transfer or for transferring data from the computers or digital data processing systems to the peripherals; 2. for interconnecting or communicating between two or more components connected to an interconnection medium (e.g., a bus) within a single computer or digital data processing system; 3. for preventing access to a shared resource of a computer or digital data processing system; 4. for granting access to a shared resource of a computer of digital data processing system by one of a plurality of components of the computer or digital data processing system by interrogating each of the components in a predetermined order; 5. for determining which of a plurality of components of a computer or digital data processing system contending for access to a shared resource shall be granted access at any one time based upon a predetermined criteria; and 6. for stopping, halting, or suspending a current processing function within a computer or digital data processing system.

Subclass 22: Direct Memory Accessing (DMA)
Subclass 23: Programmed control memory accessing
Subclass 27: Via separate bus
Subclass 28: With access regulating
Subclass 33: Data transfer specifying
Subclass 36: Input/Output access regulation
Subclass 107: Bus access regulation

Class 375: Pulse Or Digital Communications

This is the generic class for pulse or digital communication systems using electrical or electromagnetic signals. Such communication includes transmitting an intelligence bearing signal from one point to another in the form of discrete variations in some parameter of the electrical or electromagnetic signal.

Subclass 240.03: Quantization
Subclass 262: Maximum likelihood decoder or viterbi decoder
Subclass E7.108: Multistep search method, e.g., 3-step, 2D-log, One-at-a-Time Search (OTS) (EPO)

Class 709: Electrical Computers And Digital Processing Systems: Multicomputer Data Transferring

This class provides for an electrical computer or digital data processing system or corresponding data processing method including apparatus or steps for transferring data or instruction information between a plurality of computers wherein the computers employ the data or instructions before or after transferring and the employing affects said transfer of data or instruction information. The class includes - process or apparatus for transferring data among a plurality of spatially distributed (i.e., situated, at plural locations) computers or digital data processing systems via one or more communications media (e.g., computer networks).

Subclass 200: Particular function performed
Subclass 212: Detecting particular sequence of bits

Class 711: Electrical Computers And Digital Processing Systems: Memory

This class provides, within an electrical computer or digital data processing system, for the following processes and apparatus 1. for addressing memory wherein the processes and apparatus involve significant address manipulating (e.g., combining, translating, or mapping and other techniques for formatting and modifying address data) and are combined with specific memory configurations or memory systems; 2. for accessing and controlling memory (e.g., transferring and modifying address data, selecting storage devices, scheduling access); and 3. for forming memory addresses (e.g., virtual memory addressing, address translating, translation-lookaside buffers (TLBs), boundary checking, and page mode).


Class 324: Electricity: Measuring And Testing

This is the residual home for all subject matter, not elsewhere classified, relating to the measuring, testing (or sensing) of electric properties, (e.g., determining ground resistivity, determining frequency of an alternating current, determining kilowatt hour demand), or the measuring, testing or sensing of nonelectric properties by electric means (e.g., determining moisture, a nonelectric property, by measuring conductance with a resistance bridge; determining speed, a nonelectric property by use of an electric tachometer).

Class 174: Electricity: Conductors And Insulators

This class is for inventions relating to the structure of electrical conductors and insulators and insulators and the apparatus specialized to mounting, supporting, encasing in conduits, and/or housing the same. Conductors may be bare or be encased in insulation, may be single strand or plural strand, may be of single conductor form or there may be a plurality of conductors associated together to form a cable. Since all materials that have the property of being conductors of electricity and all devices made therefrom may be termed electrical conductors, only those structures that are specially designed to conduct electricity as their proximate purpose are placed in this class. Insulators are placed here when the structure thereof is claimed, which structure is specially designed for spacing two or more devices of different electrical potential from each other or for spacing one or more devices from ground. Since all materials which are poor conductors of electricity and devices made therefrom may be termed electrical insulators, only those structures whose proximate purpose is that already stated. Conduits are placed in this class only when some characteristic is claimed which limits the same to the electrical use.

Subclass 250: Preformed panel circuit arrangement (e.g., printed circuit)

Class 83: Cutting

Methods and machines for penetrating material, without substantial reshaping flow of such material, by means of (1) a solid tool, or fluid current, either of which applies mechanical deforming force to the material by direct physical contact therewith, the fluid current forcing the material against a solid tool whose edge defines the line of cut; (2) a heated solid tool which directly engages the material (to effect penetration thereof by melting, or by transmission of mechanical energy, or both); or (3) opposed, controlled fluid currents.

Subclass 51: Cutting part way through from opposite sides of work

Class 455: Telecommunications

This is the generic class for modulated carrier wave communications not elsewhere classifiable.

Subclass 259: Reference oscillator or source
Subclass 264: Voltage control of oscillator
Subclass 313: Frequency modifying or conversion
Subclass 316: With frequency stabilization for at least one local oscillator

Class 365: Static Information Storage And Retrieval

Apparatus or corresponding processes for the static storage and retrieval of information. For classification herein, the storage system must be (1) static, (2) a singular storage element or plural elements of the same type, (3) addressable.

Subclass 189.04: Simultaneous operations (e.g., read/write)
Subclass 189.05: Having particular data buffer or latch

Class G9B/20.009:

Class G9B/20.046:

Class 700: Data Processing: Generic Control Systems Or Specific Applications

This class is structured into two main divisions: (1)for the combination of a data processing or calculating computer apparatus (or corresponding methods for performing data processing or calculating operations) AND a device or apparatus controlled thereby, the entirety hereinafter referred to as a "control system". (2)for data processing or calculating computer apparatus (or corresponding methods for performing data processing or calculating operations) wherein the data processing or calculating computer apparatus is designed for or utilized in a particular art device, system, process, or environment, or is utilized for the solution of a particular problem in a field other than mathematics (arithmetic processing per se is classified elsewhere).

Subclass 110: Defect analysis or recognition
Subclass 121: Integrated circuit production or semiconductor fabrication

Class 235: Registers

Machines employed for ascertaining the number of movements of various devices or machines; also, indicating devices where the purpose is to disclose the numerical extent or quantity of movement of a machine and where the device is separate and independent of the machine whose movements are to be noted; also organized machines, such as, cash-registers, fare-registers, voting machines and calculators having registering or counting devices as essential or important elements and having in addition certain other features necessary to make up the complete machines for the purposes desired.

Subclass 454: Optical
Subclass 492: Conductive

Class 713: Electrical Computers And Digital Processing Systems: Support

This class provides, within a computer or digital data processing system, for the following processes or apparatus for: 1. establishing original operating parameters or data for a computer or digital data processing system, such as, allocating extended or expanded memory, specifying device drivers, paths, files, buffers, disk management, etc.; 2. for changing system settings or operational modes in a computer or digital data processing system after they have been set; 3. for increasing a systemís extension of protection of system hardware,software, or data frm maliciously caused destruction, unauthorized modification, or unauthorized disclosure; 4. for modifying or responding to the available power to a computer or digital data processing system or programmable calculator; 5. for synchronization of two or more processors; 6. wherein a clock or timing signals, timing pulses, or data associated with the control or regulation of any one or combination of processing components, memory components, and peripheral components are caused to operate in synchronization; 7. for generation, division, or distribution of clock signals, pulse signals, or timing signals in a computer or digital data processing system from one or more sources into groups of continuous and successive time increments, and including event timing and counting, and the correction of the clock signals, pulse signals, or timing signals; 8. wherein there is a significant temporal, incremental or sequencing control provided to one or more computers, digital data processing systems, processors, memory, or peripherals, or to data transmission between these systems or components.

Subclass 161: Data authentication
Subclass 168: Particular communication authentication technique
Subclass 169: Mutual entity authentication

Class 380: Cryptography

Equipment and processes which (a) conceal or obscure intelligible information by transforming such information so as to make the information unintelligible to a casual or unauthorized recipient, or (b) extract intelligible information from such a concealed representation, including breaking of unknown codes and messages.

Subclass 271: Having receiver selection (e.g., pager)