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Patent Summary

U.S. Patent Classes & Classifications Covered in this listing:

Class 205: Electrolysis: Processes, Compositions Used Therein, And Methods Of Preparing The Compositions

Processes (1) involving the use of electrolysis (2) of preparing or purifying compounds or elements involving chemical reaction brought about by electrical or wave energy in a magnetic field; (3) of treating materials involving chemical reaction brought about by wave energy; (4) of preparing or purifying compounds or elements involving chemical reaction brought about by an electrostatic field or electrical discharge; (5) involving the use of electrophoresis or electro-osmosis; (6) of treating a liquid (a) to separate or purify the liquid using electric and magnetic fields simultaneously, (b) to separate or purify the liquid using an electric field, or (c) using a magnetic field to obtain some effect other than mere separation or purification of the liquid; (7) involving coating, forming, or etching by the use of sputtering; and (8) involving coating by the use of vacuum arc discharge. Electrolyte compositions specialized for use in electrolytic processes or methods of preparing the compositions.

Subclass 123: Product is semiconductor or includes semiconductor
Subclass 642: To adjust voltage across or size of tool-workpiece gap
Subclass 645: With measuring, testing, or sensing
Subclass 673: Regenerating or rehabilitating, per se, of electrolyte

Class 204: Chemistry: Electrical And Wave Energy

This class includes, where not provided for elsewhere: A. Processes (1) involving the use of electrolysis (as provided for in Class 205); (2) of preparing or purifying compounds or elements involving chemical reaction brought about by electrical or wave energy in a magnetic field; (3) of treating materials involving chemical reaction brought about by wave energy; (4) of preparing or purifying compounds or elements involving chemical reaction brought about by an electrostatic field or electrical discharge; (5) involving the use of electrophoresis or electro-osmosis; (6) of treating a liquid (a) to separate or purify the liquid using electric and magnetic fields simultaneously, (b) to separate or purify the liquid using an electric field, or (c) using a magnetic field to obtain some effect other than mere separation or purification of the liquid; (7) involving coating, forming, or etching by the use of sputtering; and (8) involving coating by the use of vacuum arc discharge.

Subclass 192.11: Ion beam sputter deposition
Subclass 192.12: Glow discharge sputter deposition (e.g., cathode sputtering, etc.)
Subclass 192.15: Specified deposition material or use
Subclass 192.26: Optical or photoactive
Subclass 192.27: Reflective
Subclass 212: Rotary
Subclass 229.1: Reference electrode as or with auxiliary electrode
Subclass 230.1: Reference electrode as or with auxiliary electrode
Subclass 237: Recirculation
Subclass 238: With filter
Subclass 239: With heater or cooler
Subclass 240: With filter
Subclass 252: Diaphragm type
Subclass 298.28: Rotational movement

Class 117: Single-Crystal, Oriented-Crystal, And Epitaxy Growth Processes; Non-Coating Apparatus Therefor

Processes consisting of the single or repeated unit operation of forming a single-crystal of any type of material, including inorganic or organic; such processes combined with perfecting operations; and apparatus for conducting non-coating processes of this class.

Subclass 43: Distinctly layered product (e.g., twin, SOI, epitaxial crystallization)
Subclass 53: Forming a single-crystal region by liquefying a region of a single-crystal and adjusting the composition of the liquid (e.g., alloying, regrowth)
Subclass 58: With pretreatment of epitaxy substrate (e.g., autodoping control, cleaning, polishing, leveling, masking)

Class 148: Metal Treatment

Treating metal to modify or maintain the internal physical structure or chemical properties of metal. Most processes in this class relate to treating solid or semisolid metal with heat, without melting a substantial portion thereof, and also includes the combination of significant heating and working not provided for in other metal working classes. Cooling of metal to produce microstructure change is proper for this class. It includes processes of treating metal to intentionally develop, improve, modify, or preserve the magnetic properties of a free metal or alloy, occurring alone or mixed with one or more components. Also included are processes of reactive coating of metal wherein an externally supplied carburizing or nitriding agent is combined with the metal substrate to produce a carburized or nitridized or carbonitrided coating thereon or a uniformly carburized, nitrided, or carbonitrided metal alloy containing a metal element from said substrate.

Class 257: Active Solid-State Devices (E.G., Transistors, Solid-State Diodes)

This class provides for active solid-state electronic devices, that is, electronic devices or components that are made up primarily of solid materials, usually semiconductors, which operate by the movement of charge carriers - electrons or holes - which undergo energy level changes within the material and can modify an input voltage to achieve rectification, amplification, or switching action, and are not classified elsewhere.

Subclass 10: Low workfunction layer for electron emission (e.g., photocathode electron emissive layer)
Subclass 57: Field effect device in amorphous semiconductor material
Subclass 66: Field effect device in non-single crystal, or recrystallized, Semiconductor material
Subclass 70: Recrystallized semiconductor material
Subclass 74: Plural recrystallized semiconductor layers (e.g., 3-dimensional integrated circuit)
Subclass 347: Single crystal semiconductor layer on insulating substrate (SOI)
Subclass 352: Substrate is single crystal insulator (e.g., sapphire or spinel)
Subclass 458: PIN detector, including combinations with non-light responsive active devices
Subclass 465: Geometric configuration of junction (e.g., fingers)
Subclass 702: Of insulating material other than ceramic
Subclass 724: With discrete components
Subclass 730: Outside periphery of package having specified shape or configuration
Subclass 780: Ball or nail head type contact, lead, or bond
Subclass E31.039: Shape of potential or surface barrier (EPO)
Subclass E31.042: Including only Group IV element (EPO)
Subclass E31.045: Including microcrystalline silicon ( c-Si) (EPO)
Subclass E27.005: Including component using galvano-magnetic effects, e.g. Hall effect (EPO)
Subclass E27.111: Substrate comprising other than a semiconductor material, e.g. insulating substrate or layered substrate Including a non-semiconductor layer (EPO)
Subclass E29.182: Bipolar thin-film transistors (EPO)
Subclass E29.275: With multiple gates (EPO)
Subclass E29.278: With LDD structure or extension or offset region or characterized by doping profile (EPO)
Subclass E29.282: With light shield (EPO)
Subclass E29.286: Monocrystalline only (EPO)
Subclass E29.29: With top gate (EPO)
Subclass E29.293: With top gate (EPO)
Subclass E29.295: Characterized by insulating substrate or support (EPO)
Subclass E29.327: Diode (EPO)
Subclass E25.01: Device consisting of plurality of semiconductor or other solid state devices or components formed in or on common substrate, e.g., integrated circuit device (EPO)
Subclass E25.031: Containers (EPO)
Subclass E23.007: Organic substrates, e.g., plastic (EPO)
Subclass E23.065: Flexible insulating substrates (EPO)
Subclass E23.177: Flexible insulating substrates (EPO)
Subclass E21.119: Characterized by the substrate (EPO)
Subclass E21.122: Bonding of semiconductor wafer to insulating substrate or to semic onducting substrate using an intermediate insulating layer (EPO)
Subclass E21.131: Selective epilaxial growth, e.g., simultaneous deposition of mono- and non-mono semiconductor material (EPO)
Subclass E21.134: Using a coherent energy beam, e.g., laser or electron beam (EPO)
Subclass E21.135: Diffusion of impurity material, e.g., doping material, electrode material, into or out of a semiconductor body, or between semiconductor regions; interactions between two or more impurities; redistribution of impurities (EPO)
Subclass E21.141: Using diffusion into or out of a solid from or into a gaseous phase (EPO)
Subclass E21.146: Using predeposition of impurities into the semiconductor surface, e.g., from gaseous phase (EPO)
Subclass E21.149: Applied layer is oxide, e.g., P 2 O 5 , PSG, H 3 BO 3 , doped oxide (EPO)
Subclass E21.151: Applied layer being silicon or silicide or SIPOS, e.g., polysilicon, porous silicon (EPO)
Subclass E21.219: Chemical etching (EPO)
Subclass E21.223: Anisotropic liquid etching (EPO)
Subclass E21.316: Doping polycrystalline or amorphous silicon layer (EPO)
Subclass E21.336: Of electrically active species (EPO)
Subclass E21.347: Using electromagnetic radiation, e.g., laser radiation (EPO)
Subclass E21.372: Bipolar thin film transistor (EPO)
Subclass E21.413: Lateral single gate single channel transistor with noninverted structure, i.e., channel layer is formed before gate (EPO)
Subclass E21.414: Lateral single gate single channel transistor with inverted structure, i.e., channel layer is formed after gate (EPO)
Subclass E21.415: Monocrystalline silicon transistor on insulating substrate, e.g., quartz substrate (EPO)
Subclass E21.53: For structural parameters, e.g., thickness, line width, refractive index, temperature, warp, bond strength, defects, optical inspection, electrical measurement of structural dimensions, metallurgic measurement of diffusions (EPO)
Subclass E21.537: Making of localized buried regions, e.g., buried collector layer, internal connection, substrate contacts (EPO)
Subclass E21.538: Making of internal connections, substrate contacts (EPO)
Subclass E21.564: SOI together with lateral isolation, e.g., using local oxidation of silicon, or dielectric or polycrystalline material refilled trench or air gap isolation regions, e.g., completely isolated semiconductor islands (EPO)
Subclass E21.567: Using bonding technique (EPO)
Subclass E21.634: With particular manufacturing method of source or drain, e.g., specific S or D implants or silicided S or D structures or raised S or D structures (EPO)
Subclass E21.644: With particular manufacturing method of wells or tubs, e.g., twin tubs, high energy well implants, buried implanted layers for lateral isolation (BILLI) (EPO)
Subclass E21.649: Making connection between transistor and capacitor, e.g., plug (EPO)
Subclass E21.665: Magnetic nonvolatile memory structures, e.g., MRAM (EPO)

Class 438: Semiconductor Device Manufacturing: Process

This class provides for manufacturing a semiconductor containing a solid-state device for the following purposes: (a) conducting or modifying an electrical current, (b) storing electrical energy for subsequent discharge within a microelectronic integrated circuit, or (c) converting electromagnetic wave energy to electrical energy or electrical energy to electromagnetic energy. Also operations involving: (1) coating a substrate with a semiconductive material, or (2) coating a semiconductive substrate or substrate containing a semiconductive region. It also provides for operations involving etching a semiconductive substrate or etching a substrate containing a semiconductive region. The class provides for packaging or treatment of packaged semiconductor.

Subclass 149: On insulating substrate or layer (e.g., TFT, etc.)
Subclass 151: Having insulated gate
Subclass 157: Plural gate electrodes (e.g., dual gate, etc.)
Subclass 158: Inverted transistor structure
Subclass 164: Semiconductor islands formed upon insulating substrate or layer (e.g., mesa formation, etc.)
Subclass 166: Including recrystallization step
Subclass 190: And passive device (e.g., resistor, capacitor, etc.)
Subclass 237: Including diode
Subclass 285: Utilizing compound semiconductor
Subclass 299: Self-aligned
Subclass 30: Liquid crystal component
Subclass 301: Source or drain doping
Subclass 306: Plural doping steps
Subclass 307: Using same conductivity-type dopant
Subclass 308: Radiation or energy treatment modifying properties of semiconductor regions of substrate (e.g., thermal, corpuscular, electromagnetic, etc.)
Subclass 311: On insulating substrate or layer (i.e., SOI type)
Subclass 404: Total dielectric isolation
Subclass 406: Bonding of plural semiconductive substrates
Subclass 412: Semiconductor islands formed upon insulating substrate or layer (e.g., mesa isolation, etc.)
Subclass 459: Thinning of semiconductor substrate
Subclass 479: On insulating substrate or layer
Subclass 483: Compound semiconductor
Subclass 487: Utilizing wave energy (e.g., laser, electron beam, etc.)
Subclass 498: Differential etching
Subclass 535: By application of corpuscular or electromagnetic radiation (e.g., electron, laser, etc.)
Subclass 55: Packaging (e.g., with mounting, encapsulating, etc.) or treatment of packaged semiconductor
Subclass 559: Using capping layer over dopant source to prevent out-diffusion of dopant
Subclass 563: Glassy source or doped oxide
Subclass 667: Conductive feedthrough or through-hole in substrate
Subclass 745: Liquid phase etching
Subclass 752: Germanium
Subclass 753: Silicon
Subclass 778: Insulative material deposited upon semiconductive substrate
Subclass 780: Depositing organic material (e.g., polymer, etc.)
Subclass 798: Ionized irradiation (e.g., corpuscular or plasma treatment, etc.)
Subclass 799: By differential heating
Subclass 914: DOPING
Subclass 923: Diffusion through a layer
Subclass 94: Heterojunction
Subclass 95: Chalcogen (i.e., oxygen (O), sulfur (S), selenium (Se), tellurium (Te)) containing
Subclass 96: Amorphous semiconductor
Subclass 97: Polycrystalline semiconductor
Subclass 979: TUNNEL DIODES

Class 136: Batteries: Thermoelectric And Photoelectric

The generic class for primary, secondary, and thermal batteries. It includes the structure of the generator or battery itself, the elements thereof, the methods of preparation, operation, and details, and accessories not provided for in other classes.

Subclass 255: Schottky, graded doping, plural junction or special junction geometry
Subclass 256: Contact, coating, or surface geometry
Subclass 258: Polycrystalline or amorphous semiconductor

Class 427: Coating Processes

This is the generic class for: A. applying or obtaining a coating on a surface. The coating may be hard or soft, permanent or transitory, supplied solely by extraneous materials or supplied wholly or in part by the base material. B. impregnating a base by causing a coating material to extend or penetrate into the base material, or into the interstices of a porous, cellular or foraminous material. C. taking preparatory treatments of the base material, subsequent treatments of the coated base material and other ancillary noncoating operations claimed, per se, processes limited to etching for making a base more compatible with, or adherent to, the coating wherein the base is the substrate (work) onto which a coating is applied are included.

Subclass 214: Applying superposed diverse coatings or coating a coated base
Subclass 250: Metal coating
Subclass 255.11: Base includes an inorganic compound containing silicon or metal (e.g., glass, ceramic, brick, etc.)
Subclass 261: Final coating nonuniform
Subclass 269: Glass or ceramic base
Subclass 287: Metal, glass, or ceramic base
Subclass 383.5: Fused oxide-containing base (e.g., ceramic, glass, etc.)
Subclass 404: Metal coating
Subclass 532: Pretreatment of substrate or post-treatment of coated substrate
Subclass 534: Cleaning or removing part of substrate (e.g., etching with plasma, glow discharge, etc.)
Subclass 535: Plasma (e.g., cold plasma, corona, glow discharge, etc.)
Subclass 552: Nonuniform or patterned coating
Subclass 555: Nonuniform or patterned coating
Subclass 580: Electrical discharge (e.g., arcs, sparks, etc.)
Subclass 585: Chemical vapor deposition (e.g., electron beam or heating using IR, inductance, resistance, etc.)
Subclass 586: Pyrolytic use of laser or focused light (e.g., IR, UV lasers to heat, etc.)
Subclass 596: Laser or electron beam (e.g., heat source, etc.)
Subclass 78: Vapor deposition or spraying

Class 315: Electric Lamp And Discharge Devices: Systems

Electric lamp and electric space discharge device systems: structural combinations with circuit elements; structural combinations with heating and/or cooling means; cathode-ray tubes; lamps and/or discharge devices as sole load devices; lamps; electric space discharge devices gas or vapor discharge devices; high vacuum-type discharge devices, and gas or vapor-type discharge devices claimed broadly; plural load device systems; art uses and combinations with art devices; testing electric lamps and discharge devices; and operating a lamp or a gas or vapor discharge device.

Subclass 169.1: Diverse-type energizing or bias supplies to different electrodes
Subclass 169.3: Electroluminescent device

Class 313: Electric Lamp And Discharge Devices

This is the generic class for electric lamp and electric space discharge device structure. Examples of such devices are electric incandescent lamps, gas or vapor filled electric discharge tubes, including lamps, mercury arc devices, vacuum discharge tubes, radio tubes, cyclotrons, cathode-ray tubes, photosensitive discharge devices, secondary emission electron multipliers, spark plugs, and open air arc and spark devices.

Subclass 420: Electron permeable window
Subclass 422: Flat tube type
Subclass 458: Electrode
Subclass 495: Vacuum-type tube
Subclass 346R: Cathodes containing and/or coated with electron emissive material

Class 445: Electric Lamp Or Space Discharge Component Or Device Manufacturing

This is the residual and generic class of process and apparatus for the manufacturing, fabrication, repair, salvage, assembly, disassembly or other treatment of an electric lamp, liquid crystal display device or an electric space discharge device which process or apparatus is not elsewhere classified.

Subclass 14: Coating on particular base material, part or place
Subclass 50: Emissive type
Subclass 67: Having electrode positioning or assembly means

Class 134: Cleaning And Liquid Contact With Solids

Cleaning, i.e., the separation or removal of adherent dirt, scale, tarnish, impurities or any other foreign or undesired matter from solid materials or objects whether or not the resultant separated ingredients are recovered in whole or in part for subsequent use. Cleaning may be performed by, or may involve as a part thereof, contacting solids with liquids. The contacting of solids with liquids may be for purposes other than cleaning.

Subclass 1.3: Semiconductor cleaning
Subclass 30: Including steam, gaseous agent or temperature feature
Subclass 31: Gas or vapor condensation or absorption oowork
Subclass 32: With work or work parts movable during treatment
Subclass 64R: For sheet, web, strand or bar form work, longitudinally traveling
Subclass 122R: For sheet, web, strand or bar form work, longitudinally traveling

Class 250: Radiant Energy

This class provides for all methods and apparatus for using, generating, controlling or detecting radiant energy, combinations including such methods or apparatus, subcombinations of same and accessories therefore not classifiable elsewhere.

Subclass 397: With detector
Subclass 492.21: Ion bombardment

Class 355: Photocopying

Apparatus and methods for photos: graphically copying information from an original or carrier that is not classified elsewhere, generally employing a concentrated source of light and an image receiving medium with a photosensitive emulsion surface. Various plural and composite types of copies are included such as those involving plural projected images including multicolor and duplex.

Subclass 53: Step and repeat

Class 378: X-Ray Or Gamma Ray Systems Or Devices

This is the generic class for apparatus and corresponding processes involving the generation or use of electromagnetic radiation within the X-ray spectrum. Methods, systems, and elements with specific features characteristic of X-ray applications are classified here.

Subclass 161: Window
Subclass 34: Lithography
Subclass 84: Monochromator or focusing device

Class 216: Etching A Substrate: Processes

Chemical etching processes for treating articles of commerce or intermediate articles not otherwise provided for in which one of the manufacturing steps includes a chemical etching step (use of an etchant) and wherein the material treated is not completely removed.

Subclass 67: Using plasma
Subclass 72: Etching a multiple layered substrate where the etching condition used produces a different etching rate or characteristic between at least two of the layers of the substrate
Subclass 75: Substrate contains elemental metal, alloy thereof, or metal compound
Subclass 79: Etching silicon containing substrate

Class 102: Ammunition And Explosives

Ammunition propelled by explosives and explosives methods or means which includes: Missile, blasting means, payload, pyrotechnic, gun ammunition and/or miscellaneous explosive means. Gun barrel cleaning means which are propelled through the barrel by explosive or fluid under high pressure. Fluid under high pressure, other then chemical reaction, which escape very rapidly. Material which burns or combusts which is intended to be projected, dropped, thrown, or propelled is proper for the class. (1) By releasing a combustion material to the atmosphere, e.g., gas, incendiary shell, grenade, etc. (2) By generating heat to damage an object, e.g., thermite means.

Subclass 202.5: Electrical primer or ignitor
Subclass 202.7: Having an exploding bridgewire
Subclass 206: Ignition or detonation circuit

Class 118: Coating Apparatus

pparatus for applying or obtaining a surface coating on a base and/or apparatus for impregnating base materials and takes all such apparatus not provided for in other classes. The coating obtained may be permanent or transitory. The coating may be supplied solely by extraneous materials, as in a painting or waxing operation, or may be supplied wholly or in part by the base materials as in the formation of an oxide coating on a metal base. The coating may consist of an emulsion, dispersion, solution, admixture or oil which is clearly disclosed as leaving a residual film, layer or continuous deposit on the base.

Subclass 301: With mask or stencil

Class 428: Stock Material Or Miscellaneous Articles

This is the residual class for: 1. Stock material in the form of a structurally defined web, sheet, rod, strand, fiber, filament, cell, flake, particle not provided elsewhere. 2. Stock material in the form of a web, sheet, mass or layer which consists of or contains a structurally defined constituent or element. 3. A nonstructural laminate defined merely in terms of the composition of one or more layers. 4. An article of manufacture or an intermediate-article not provided for elsewhere. 5. A process for applying an impregnating material to a naturally solid product such as a wood beam, a sheet of leather or a stone, or for applying a coating to a base, and which process includes no significant method step.

Subclass 613: Porous (e.g., foamed, spongy, cracked, etc.)
Subclass 615: Composite; i.e., plural, adjacent, spatially distinct metal components (e.g., layers, joint, etc.)
Subclass 627: Boride, carbide or nitride component
Subclass 634: Free carbon containing component
Subclass 660: Refractory (Group IVB, VB, or VIB) metal-base component
Subclass 665: W-base component
Subclass 666: Cr-base component
Subclass 671: Cu-base component alternative to Ag-, Au-, or Ni-base component
Subclass 674: Cu-base component
Subclass 209: Including metal layer
Subclass 216: No layer or component greater than 5 mils thick
Subclass 312.2: Inorganic matrix in void-containing component
Subclass 312.8: Of metal-containing material
Subclass 317.9: Void-containing component contains also a solid fiber or solid particle
Subclass 318.4: With nonvoid component of specified composition
Subclass 319.1: Inorganic
Subclass 323: Including a second component containing structurally defined particles
Subclass 403: Coated
Subclass 457: Of metal

Class 349: Liquid Crystal Cells, Elements And Systems

Cells, elements, and systems which include molecules of a material having both liquid and crystalline properties. Included in this class are those which have a significant liquid crystal cell detail or liquid crystal response or properties, and in which the liquid crystal controls or changes the optical properties of electromagnetic radiation such as direction, phase, amplitude, frequency, or polarization state. This class also provides for nominal manufacturing methods for producing significant liquid crystal cell structure.

Subclass 158: Substrate
Subclass 86: Microencapsulated or polymer dispersed liquid crystal
Subclass 92: Formed by particular technique

Class 345: Computer Graphics Processing And Selective Visual Display Systems

Processes and apparatus for selective electrical control of two or more light-generating or light-controlling display elements* in accordance with a received or stored image data signal. The image data includes character, graphical information or display attribute data. The image data may include, for example, information data from a peripheral input device, from the reception of a television signal, from the recognition of image data, or from the generation or creation of image data by a computer.

Subclass 55: Display elements arranged in matrix (e.g., rows and columns)
Subclass 75.2: Field emissive (e.g., FED, Spindt, microtip, etc.)
Subclass 87: Liquid crystal display elements (LCD)
Subclass 90: Control means at each display element
Subclass 92: Thin film tansistor (TFT)

Class 307: Electrical Transmission Or Interconnection Systems

This is the residual class for all subject matter, not elsewhere classified, relating to electrical transmission or interconnection systems.


Class 327: Miscellaneous Active Electrical Nonlinear Devices, Circuits, And Systems

This is the residual class for electrical devices, circuits or systems having an output not directly proportional to its input and comprising at least one component which can provide gain or can route electrical current and which device, circuit or system does not form a complete system such as is classified specifically elsewhere or a subcombination of utility only in such elsewhere classified system.

Subclass 183: Delay line or capacitor storage element charges or discharges through a tube to form pulse
Subclass 422: Avalanche
Subclass 580: Transistor breakdown device (e.g., avalanche, zener, punch through, etc.)

Class 359: Optical: Systems And Elements

Optical elements included in this class are: Lenses; Polarizers; Diffraction gratings; Prisms; Reflectors; Filters; Projection screens; Optical Modulators; Optical Demodulators. Among the optical systems included in this class are: Compound lens systems; Light reflecting signalling systems (e.g., retroreflectors); stereoscopic systems; Binocular devices; Systems of lenticular elements; Systems involving light interference; Glare reducing systems; Light dividing and combining systems; Light control systems (e.g., light valves); building illumination with natural light; Systems for protecting or shielding elements; Optical systems whose operation depends upon polarizing, diffracting, dispersing, reflecting, or refracting light; kaleidoscopes. Further included are certain apertures, closures, and viewing devices of a specialized nature which involve no intentional reflection, refraction, or filtering of light rays. This class also includes optical elements combined with another type of structure(s) to constitute an optical element combined with a nonoptical structure or a perfection or improvement in the optical element.

Subclass 257: Pockels cell
Subclass 359: Multilayer filter or multilayer reflector
Subclass 361: Having ultraviolet absorbing or shielding property
Subclass 572: Reflection grating (e.g., retrodirective)
Subclass 574: With curved or geometrically shaped corrugation
Subclass 576: Laminated or layered

Class 430: Radiation Imagery Chemistry: Process, Composition, Or Product Thereof

This is the generic class for: (1) Forming the likeness of an object, or an instrumented or discernible phenomenon, in a chemically defined receiver or in a receiver wherein radiation produces a chemical reaction, by use of radiation. (2) Finishing an image by chemical processing regardless how formed. (3) A radiation sensitive receiver, composition, or product disclosed solely for radiation imagery chemistry, and process of making same. (4) A nonradiation sensitive-receiver, composition, or product. (5) An imaged product by a process or employing a receiver, composition, or product.

Subclass 313: With formation of resist image, and etching of substrate or material deposition
Subclass 314: Etching of substrate and material deposition
Subclass 315: Material deposition only
Subclass 318: Metal etched
Subclass 329: Removal of imaged layers

Class 356: Optics: Measuring And Testing

Methods and apparatus (1) for analyzing light to measure or test its characteristics, such as intensity, color and polarization; (2) for determining the optical or nonoptical properties of materials or articles by noting, as by inspection, measurement, or test the effect produced by the materials or articles on light associated therewith; and (3) for measuring the dimensions of structures or the spatial relationships such as distances or angle bearings of spaced points by comparison of the respective properties (usually direction or spatial position) of the light from these points or by comparison of the properties of these lights with some scale or standard. The light analyzing includes or is for spectroscopy, interference, polarization, beam direction or pattern, focal position of a light source, shade or color, and photometers. The material or article properties determined are or involve crystal or gem examination, material strain analysis, blood analysis, optical pyrometers, egg candling, cutting blade sharpness, oil testing, document verification, flatness, lens or reflector testing, refraction testing, monitoring moving webs or fabrics, light transmission or absorption, light reflection, inspection for flaws or imperfections in materials, and thread counting. The dimensioning and spatial relationship determination includes triangulation by a light beam, contour plotting, range or height finders, motion stopping, velocity or velocity/height measuring, sighting where the optical element or reticle moves with the sighted object, particle size determination, particle light scattering, electrophoresis, angle measuring or axial alignment, mensuration or configuration comparison, alignment in a lateral direction, and fiducial instruments.

Subclass 237.5: On patterned or topographical surface (e.g., wafer, mask, circuit board)
Subclass 484: Having light beams of different frequencies (e.g., heterodyning)

Class 264: Plastic And Nonmetallic Article Shaping Or Treating: Processes

Processes for molding, casting, or shaping of nonmetallic materials to produce articles. Liquid or melt comminuting of materials other than glass or metal. Uniting or compacting of bulk or randomly assembled particles. Furnace Lining or repair. Melt shaping in the absence of a mold or shaping surface, e.g., spheroidizing of particles. Working or treatment of nonmetallic materials not otherwise provided for.

Subclass 642: Shaping or treating of multilayered, impregnated, or composite-structured article
Subclass 643: Shaping followed by article coating or impregnating

Class 419: Powder Metallurgy Processes

This is the generic class for producing metals, alloys or metal containing compositions in a solid or compact state from powdered or particulate material with or without heating.

Subclass 2: Making porous product

Class 174: Electricity: Conductors And Insulators

This class is for inventions relating to the structure of electrical conductors and insulators and insulators and the apparatus specialized to mounting, supporting, encasing in conduits, and/or housing the same. Conductors may be bare or be encased in insulation, may be single strand or plural strand, may be of single conductor form or there may be a plurality of conductors associated together to form a cable. Since all materials that have the property of being conductors of electricity and all devices made therefrom may be termed electrical conductors, only those structures that are specially designed to conduct electricity as their proximate purpose are placed in this class. Insulators are placed here when the structure thereof is claimed, which structure is specially designed for spacing two or more devices of different electrical potential from each other or for spacing one or more devices from ground. Since all materials which are poor conductors of electricity and devices made therefrom may be termed electrical insulators, only those structures whose proximate purpose is that already stated. Conduits are placed in this class only when some characteristic is claimed which limits the same to the electrical use.

Subclass 254: Convertible shape (e.g., flexible) or circuit (e.g., breadboard)
Subclass 255: With particular substrate or support structure
Subclass 258: Insulating

Class 382: Image Analysis

This is the generic class for apparatus and corresponding methods for the automated analysis of an image or recognition of a pattern. Included herein are systems that transform an image for the purpose of (a) enhancing its visual quality prior to recognition, (b) locating and registering the image relative to a sensor or stored prototype, or reducing the amount of image data by discarding irrelevant data, and (c) measuring significant characteristics of the image.

Subclass 145: Inspection of semiconductor device or printed circuit board