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Patent Summary

U.S. Patent Classes & Classifications Covered in this listing:

Class 257: Active Solid-State Devices (E.G., Transistors, Solid-State Diodes)

This class provides for active solid-state electronic devices, that is, electronic devices or components that are made up primarily of solid materials, usually semiconductors, which operate by the movement of charge carriers - electrons or holes - which undergo energy level changes within the material and can modify an input voltage to achieve rectification, amplification, or switching action, and are not classified elsewhere.

Subclass 14: Quantum well
Subclass 81: With specific housing or contact structure
Subclass 98: With reflector, opaque mask, or optical element (e.g., lens, optical fiber, index of refraction matching layer, luminescent material layer, filter) integral with device or device enclosure or package
Subclass 99: With housing or contact structure
Subclass 184: Light responsive structure
Subclass 197: Bipolar transistor
Subclass 257: Light responsive or combined with light responsive device
Subclass 432: With optical element
Subclass 433: With housing or encapsulation
Subclass 435: With optical shield or mask means
Subclass 436: With means for increasing light absorption (e.g., redirection of unabsorbed light)
Subclass 440: With different sensor portions responsive to different wavelengths (e.g., color imager)
Subclass 458: PIN detector, including combinations with non-light responsive active devices
Subclass 680: With window means
Subclass 682: With desiccant, getter, or gas filling
Subclass 704: Cap or lid
Subclass 779: Solder wettable contact, lead, or bond
Subclass E33.008: Multiple quantum well structure (EPO)
Subclass E33.046: P-I-N device (EPO)
Subclass E31.022: Including ternary or quaternary compound (EPO)
Subclass E31.032: Characterized by semiconductor body shape, relative size, or disposition of semiconductor regions (EPO)
Subclass E31.033: Multiple quantum well structure (EPO)
Subclass E31.054: Device sensitive to infrared, visible, or ultraviolet radiation (EPO)
Subclass E31.061: PIN potential barrier (EPO)
Subclass E31.117: Encapsulation (EPO)
Subclass E27.128: With at least one potential barrier or surface barrier (EPO)
Subclass E23.137: Including materials for absorbing or reacting with moisture or other undesired substances, e.g., getters (EPO)
Subclass E21.238: Making grooves, e.g., cutting (EPO)
Subclass E21.705: Assembly of devices consisting of solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate; assembly of integrated circuit devices (EPO)

Class 438: Semiconductor Device Manufacturing: Process

This class provides for manufacturing a semiconductor containing a solid-state device for the following purposes: (a) conducting or modifying an electrical current, (b) storing electrical energy for subsequent discharge within a microelectronic integrated circuit, or (c) converting electromagnetic wave energy to electrical energy or electrical energy to electromagnetic energy. Also operations involving: (1) coating a substrate with a semiconductive material, or (2) coating a semiconductive substrate or substrate containing a semiconductive region. It also provides for operations involving etching a semiconductive substrate or etching a substrate containing a semiconductive region. The class provides for packaging or treatment of packaged semiconductor.

Subclass 107: Assembly of plural semiconductive substrates each possessing electrical device
Subclass 108: Flip-chip-type assembly
Subclass 109: Stacked array (e.g., rectifier, etc.)
Subclass 129: With electrical circuit layout
Subclass 23: Having diverse electrical device
Subclass 25: Packaging (e.g., with mounting, encapsulating, etc.) or treatment of packaged semiconductor
Subclass 26: Packaging (e.g., with mounting, encapsulating, etc.) or treatment of packaged semiconductor
Subclass 27: Having additional optical element (e.g., optical fiber, etc.)
Subclass 31: Optical waveguide structure
Subclass 33: Substrate dicing
Subclass 37: Graded composition
Subclass 38: Passivating of surface
Subclass 39: Mesa formation
Subclass 42: Groove formation
Subclass 44: With epitaxial deposition of semiconductor in groove
Subclass 46: Compound semiconductor
Subclass 462: Having specified scribe region structure (e.g., alignment mark, plural grooves, etc.)
Subclass 65: Having additional optical element (e.g., optical fiber, etc.)
Subclass 67: Assembly of plural semiconductor substrates
Subclass 767: Compound semiconductor substrate
Subclass 779: Compound semiconductor substrate

Class 148: Metal Treatment

Treating metal to modify or maintain the internal physical structure or chemical properties of metal. Most processes in this class relate to treating solid or semisolid metal with heat, without melting a substantial portion thereof, and also includes the combination of significant heating and working not provided for in other metal working classes. Cooling of metal to produce microstructure change is proper for this class. It includes processes of treating metal to intentionally develop, improve, modify, or preserve the magnetic properties of a free metal or alloy, occurring alone or mixed with one or more components. Also included are processes of reactive coating of metal wherein an externally supplied carburizing or nitriding agent is combined with the metal substrate to produce a carburized or nitridized or carbonitrided coating thereon or a uniformly carburized, nitrided, or carbonitrided metal alloy containing a metal element from said substrate.

Class 385: Optical Waveguides

(1) An optical waveguiding element, which conveys light from one point to another through an optically transparent elongated structure by modal transmission, total internal reflection, or total reflectorization. (2) A combination of an optical waveguiding element with an additional broadly recited optical element which couples light or a combination. (3) A combination of an optical waveguiding element with structure which mechanically joins this waveguiding element with another or with a diverse optical element. (4) An optical modulator where the modulation of a light wave characteristic is performed exclusively within an optical waveguiding element. (5) Other miscellaneous devices formed of an optical waveguide (e.g., a waveguide sensing device) and supplemental devices which are limited to use with an optical waveguide (e.g., an external clamp or retainer).

Subclass 130: Thin film optical waveguide
Subclass 131: Multilayer structure (mixture)
Subclass 134: ACCESSORIES
Subclass 135: Splice box and surplus fiber storage/trays/organizers/ carriers
Subclass 139: Plug/termination device
Subclass 140: Attenuator
Subclass 143: Organic
Subclass 16: Switch (i.e., switching from one terminal to another, not modulation)
Subclass 18: Reflective-type switch
Subclass 20: Multiple pole multiple throw
Subclass 22: Single pole multiple throw (relay switch)
Subclass 24: Plural (e.g., data bus)
Subclass 27: Particular coupling function
Subclass 28: Coupling between modes in a waveguide or fiber
Subclass 31: Input/output coupler
Subclass 33: Lens
Subclass 34: Rod type
Subclass 35: Spherical
Subclass 37: Grating
Subclass 38: End fire
Subclass 42: Directional coupler
Subclass 43: Tapered coupler
Subclass 45: Y coupler
Subclass 46: Star coupler
Subclass 48: Access couplers, power tappers, or power dividers
Subclass 49: Fiber to thin film devices
Subclass 50: Waveguide to waveguide
Subclass 52: With alignment device
Subclass 56: Multi-part (e.g., two pieces screwed together or bayonet latched)
Subclass 78: Fiber end held in ferrule
Subclass 88: Optical fiber to a nonfiber optical device connector
Subclass 89: Plural fiber/device connections
Subclass 91: Fiber permanently fixed after adjustment
Subclass 92: With housing
Subclass 93: Including lens
Subclass 94: Sealed from environment
Subclass 98: End-to-end (butt) coupling

Class 219: Electric Heating

This class includes all those devices commonly known as electric heaters, electric-heating metal working apparatus, electrically-heated tools and instruments. This is the generic class for electric heating devices, per se. Devices and systems equipped with electric heating means in which the electric heating means is combined with or includes specific other art structure whereby the heated material is withdrawn, stored or otherwise utilized will also be classified in the appropriate other art class to which it pertains.

Subclass 209: Electrical devices
Subclass 420: Crucible or furnace type (i.e., adapted to hold meltable material)
Subclass 56.1: Of wire leads
Subclass 56.22: Methods
Subclass 85.18: Wire lead bonders

Class 228: Metal Fusion Bonding

Method of joining the meeting faces of juxtaposed or engaged metal work parts or of the same part originally in a form-sustaining state, by the direct application of heat and/or mechanical energy to either of: (a) such work parts, to such an extent as to effect a flowing or blending together of some of the metal in neighboring regions of said work parts into a continuous metallic zone interconnecting said work parts, or (b) such work parts and a metallic filler, to such an extent as to effect a flowing or blending together of the filler and some of the metal of said work portions into a continuous metallic zone interconnecting said work portions with filler and thus with each other.

Subclass 180.21: Component terminal to substrate surface (i.e., nonpenetrating terminal)

Class 361: Electricity: Electrical Systems And Devices

Systems or devices which provide safety and protection for other systems and devices; control circuits for electromagnetic devices and non-electromagnetic-type relays. Systems or devices which discharge, or prevent the accumulation of electrical charge on or in an object or material; circuits for charging objects or materials. Systems for generating or conducting an electric charge. Systems which process electrical speed signals. Circuits for reversing the polarity of an electric circuit. Systems which cause the ignition of a fuel or an explosive charge. Systems and processes for demagnetizing a magnetic field. Transformers and inductors with integral switch, capacitor or lock. Electrostatic capacitors, per se. Housings and mounting assemblies with plural diverse electrical components. Electrolytic systems and devices.

Subclass 760: Connection of components to board
Subclass 779: With specific connection material
Subclass 806: Diode
Subclass 820: For semiconductor device

Class 345: Computer Graphics Processing And Selective Visual Display Systems

Processes and apparatus for selective electrical control of two or more light-generating or light-controlling display elements* in accordance with a received or stored image data signal. The image data includes character, graphical information or display attribute data. The image data may include, for example, information data from a peripheral input device, from the reception of a television signal, from the recognition of image data, or from the generation or creation of image data by a computer.

Subclass 46: Light-emitting diodes

Class 359: Optical: Systems And Elements

Optical elements included in this class are: Lenses; Polarizers; Diffraction gratings; Prisms; Reflectors; Filters; Projection screens; Optical Modulators; Optical Demodulators. Among the optical systems included in this class are: Compound lens systems; Light reflecting signalling systems (e.g., retroreflectors); stereoscopic systems; Binocular devices; Systems of lenticular elements; Systems involving light interference; Glare reducing systems; Light dividing and combining systems; Light control systems (e.g., light valves); building illumination with natural light; Systems for protecting or shielding elements; Optical systems whose operation depends upon polarizing, diffracting, dispersing, reflecting, or refracting light; kaleidoscopes. Further included are certain apertures, closures, and viewing devices of a specialized nature which involve no intentional reflection, refraction, or filtering of light rays. This class also includes optical elements combined with another type of structure(s) to constitute an optical element combined with a nonoptical structure or a perfection or improvement in the optical element.

Subclass 245: Electro-optic
Subclass 247: Using reflective or cavity structure
Subclass 248: Semiconductor
Subclass 249: Compensation technique
Subclass 263: By reflection
Subclass 273: Particular electrochromic layer structure
Subclass 281: Modulation of polarized light via modulating input signal
Subclass 282: Using layered structure or plural mediums
Subclass 286: Amplitude modulation
Subclass 289: Amplitude modulation
Subclass 290: By changing physical characteristics (e.g., shape, size or contours) of an optical element
Subclass 291: Shape or contour of light control surface altered
Subclass 321: Having particular chemical composition or structure
Subclass 337: Correction of deleterious effects
Subclass 337.21: Grating
Subclass 341.1: Optical fiber
Subclass 341.3: Pumping
Subclass 341.31: Operating frequency
Subclass 347: Multiple pass
Subclass 360: Having metal layer
Subclass 393: With plural transverse movements
Subclass 484: Time invariant electric, magnetic, or electromagnetic field responsive (e.g., electro-optical, magneto-optical)
Subclass 494: By birefringent element
Subclass 495: For beam deflection or splitting
Subclass 496: Prisms
Subclass 497: Using plural elements
Subclass 501: By relatively adjustable superimposed or in series polarizers
Subclass 584: Reflector
Subclass 585: Including metal or conductive layer
Subclass 589: Selective wavelength transmission or reflection
Subclass 619: By surface composed of lenticular elements
Subclass 626: Particular focusing or defocusing characteristic
Subclass 838: MIRROR
Subclass 846: Including specified control or retention of the shape of a mirror surface
Subclass 884: With selective absorption or transparent overcoating

Class 428: Stock Material Or Miscellaneous Articles

This is the residual class for: 1. Stock material in the form of a structurally defined web, sheet, rod, strand, fiber, filament, cell, flake, particle not provided elsewhere. 2. Stock material in the form of a web, sheet, mass or layer which consists of or contains a structurally defined constituent or element. 3. A nonstructural laminate defined merely in terms of the composition of one or more layers. 4. An article of manufacture or an intermediate-article not provided for elsewhere. 5. A process for applying an impregnating material to a naturally solid product such as a wood beam, a sheet of leather or a stone, or for applying a coating to a base, and which process includes no significant method step.

Subclass 192: Edge feature
Subclass 195.1: Discontinuous or differential coating, impregnation or bond (e.g., artwork, printing, retouched photograph, etc.)
Subclass 304.4: Composite having voids in a component (e.g., porous, cellular, etc.)
Subclass 315.5: Voids specified as micro
Subclass 332: Physical dimension specified
Subclass 336: 1 mil or less
Subclass 690: Fluroescent, phosphorescent, or luminescent layer

Class 216: Etching A Substrate: Processes

Chemical etching processes for treating articles of commerce or intermediate articles not otherwise provided for in which one of the manufacturing steps includes a chemical etching step (use of an etchant) and wherein the material treated is not completely removed.

Subclass 26: Lens
Subclass 72: Etching a multiple layered substrate where the etching condition used produces a different etching rate or characteristic between at least two of the layers of the substrate

Class 430: Radiation Imagery Chemistry: Process, Composition, Or Product Thereof

This is the generic class for: (1) Forming the likeness of an object, or an instrumented or discernible phenomenon, in a chemically defined receiver or in a receiver wherein radiation produces a chemical reaction, by use of radiation. (2) Finishing an image by chemical processing regardless how formed. (3) A radiation sensitive receiver, composition, or product disclosed solely for radiation imagery chemistry, and process of making same. (4) A nonradiation sensitive-receiver, composition, or product. (5) An imaged product by a process or employing a receiver, composition, or product.

Subclass 321: Optical device

Class 118: Coating Apparatus

pparatus for applying or obtaining a surface coating on a base and/or apparatus for impregnating base materials and takes all such apparatus not provided for in other classes. The coating obtained may be permanent or transitory. The coating may be supplied solely by extraneous materials, as in a painting or waxing operation, or may be supplied wholly or in part by the base materials as in the formation of an oxide coating on a metal base. The coating may consist of an emulsion, dispersion, solution, admixture or oil which is clearly disclosed as leaving a residual film, layer or continuous deposit on the base.

Subclass 728: Work support
Subclass 729: Moving work support
Subclass 730: Rotary

Class 225: Severing By Tearing Or Breaking

Devices or processes accomplishing manual severing of indefinite length material such as strands or webs or of fixed length material such as sheets, cards, or tickets wherein a blade having a severing edge is provided and wherein the severing edge is fixed in position with respect to a portion of the work material during severance, the work itself is directly manually grasped on one side of the edge and forced against the edge to effect severance along that edge while at least some portion of the work on the opposite side of the edge is restrained from movement during severance to thereby prevent any portion of the work from being transported across the edge.

Subclass 101: Relatively movable clamps
Subclass 2: With preliminary weakening

Class 372: Coherent Light Generators

An assembly of electrical, mechanical, and optical components produces an intense, coherent, directional beam of light by stimulating electronic, ionic, or molecular transitions to lower energy levels.

Subclass 10: Q-switch
Subclass 11: Absorption type
Subclass 18: Mode locking
Subclass 20: Tuning
Subclass 21: Nonlinear device
Subclass 22: Frequency multiplying (e.g., harmonic generator)
Subclass 23: Producing plural wavelength output
Subclass 26: Modulation
Subclass 28: Frequency
Subclass 29.01: Having particular beam control circuit component
Subclass 31: Amplitude
Subclass 32: Frequency
Subclass 36: Heat sink
Subclass 38.02: For driving or controlling laser
Subclass 45.01: Particular confinement layer
Subclass 46.01: Particular current control structure
Subclass 49.01: Particular coating on facet
Subclass 50.1: Monolithic integrated
Subclass 50.21: Having photodetection means
Subclass 75: Semiconductor
Subclass 94: Having a ring configuration
Subclass 96: Distributed feedback
Subclass 98: Specified cavity component
Subclass 102: Grating
Subclass 106: Polarizer
Subclass 107: Mirror support or alignment structure

Class 356: Optics: Measuring And Testing

Methods and apparatus (1) for analyzing light to measure or test its characteristics, such as intensity, color and polarization; (2) for determining the optical or nonoptical properties of materials or articles by noting, as by inspection, measurement, or test the effect produced by the materials or articles on light associated therewith; and (3) for measuring the dimensions of structures or the spatial relationships such as distances or angle bearings of spaced points by comparison of the respective properties (usually direction or spatial position) of the light from these points or by comparison of the properties of these lights with some scale or standard. The light analyzing includes or is for spectroscopy, interference, polarization, beam direction or pattern, focal position of a light source, shade or color, and photometers. The material or article properties determined are or involve crystal or gem examination, material strain analysis, blood analysis, optical pyrometers, egg candling, cutting blade sharpness, oil testing, document verification, flatness, lens or reflector testing, refraction testing, monitoring moving webs or fabrics, light transmission or absorption, light reflection, inspection for flaws or imperfections in materials, and thread counting. The dimensioning and spatial relationship determination includes triangulation by a light beam, contour plotting, range or height finders, motion stopping, velocity or velocity/height measuring, sighting where the optical element or reticle moves with the sighted object, particle size determination, particle light scattering, electrophoresis, angle measuring or axial alignment, mensuration or configuration comparison, alignment in a lateral direction, and fiducial instruments.

Subclass 400: With light detector (e.g., photocell)
Subclass 401: With registration indicia (e.g., scale)
Subclass 519: Having partially reflecting plates in series (e.g., Fabry-Perot type)

Class 330: Amplifiers

This is the generic class for amplifiers, included: Amplifiers having all types of active elements (or amplifying devices), amplifier systems having plural amplifier channels, cascade amplifiers, push-pull amplifiers and other amplifiers having plural amplifier devices. Also included are amplifiers with plural signal sources or plural loads. Amplifiers including the means coupling the signal source to the amplifier or coupling the amplifier to the load or between cascaded stages are also included. Amplifiers combined with tone control means. Amplifiers combined with amplitude (volume) control means whether by manual control, by control of an electrode D.C. bias. Amplifiers combined with power supply. Amplifiers combined with structural features of the amplifier or the amplifier circuit elements. Amplifiers having signal feedback means.

Subclass 308: Including atomic particle or radiant energy impinging on a semiconductor

Class 250: Radiant Energy

This class provides for all methods and apparatus for using, generating, controlling or detecting radiant energy, combinations including such methods or apparatus, subcombinations of same and accessories therefore not classifiable elsewhere.

Subclass 551: Signal isolator
Subclass 214A: Amplifier type
Subclass 214LS: Switching type
Subclass 227.14: Condition responsive light guide (e.g., light guide is physically affected by parameter sensed which results in light conveyed to the photocell)

Class 73: Measuring And Testing

Processes and apparatus for making a measurement of any kind or for making a test of any kind, and takes all such subject matter not provided for in other classes. The term "test" includes inspection, processes and apparatus for determining qualities by inspection being included where not provided for in other classes. This class is the generic class for sampling and takes all sampling apparatus and processes not otherwise provided.


Class 374: Thermal Measuring And Testing

(1) a characteristic or condition of an object or system utilizing heating or cooling as a significant part of the test and not provided for in other classes, or (2) a thermal quantity or condition. This class also includes circuitry and devices with structure unique to a thermal measurement or test.

Subclass 57: Of susceptibility to thermally induced deteriouration, flaw, or failure

Class 398: Optical Communications

This class provides for all types of communication systems in which optical signals are used to transmit modulated carrier wave information between points. Such communication includes transmitting an intelligence-bearing signal from one point to another in the form of variations in a characteristic of the light wave. The communication may be through free space, fibers or waveguides. These are used to transfer the information with an optical beam, and this beam can be used in various communication schemes to enable the most effective or desired method of moving the information, including optical multiplexing when plural information signals or plural transmitters and receivers are utilized.

Subclass 129: Including alignment
Subclass 138: Single device as transmitter and receiver
Subclass 139: Including optical fiber or waveguide
Subclass 156: Including alignment between transmitter and receiver
Subclass 164: Including optical circuit board
Subclass 193: Precompensation (e.g., prechirping, predistortion
Subclass 194: For noise or distortion
Subclass 202: RECEIVER
Subclass 76: Subcarrier multiplexing
Subclass 87: Grating

Class 327: Miscellaneous Active Electrical Nonlinear Devices, Circuits, And Systems

This is the residual class for electrical devices, circuits or systems having an output not directly proportional to its input and comprising at least one component which can provide gain or can route electrical current and which device, circuit or system does not form a complete system such as is classified specifically elsewhere or a subcombination of utility only in such elsewhere classified system.

Subclass 291: Clock or pulse waveform generating
Subclass 304: With inductive device (e.g., transformer, etc.)
Subclass 362: With compensation
Subclass 514: Light

Class 332: Modulators

A modulator combined with structure for measuring or indicating some aspect of the modulation process or characteristic of the modulated signal is classified here. Specifically, measurement or indication of a frequency or amplitude modulator A specific modulating signal source (e.g., microphone or photocell). A combination including both a modulator and a demodulator is classified.

Subclass 160: Reduction or compensation of nonlinearity in modulation characteristic

Class 427: Coating Processes

This is the generic class for: A. applying or obtaining a coating on a surface. The coating may be hard or soft, permanent or transitory, supplied solely by extraneous materials or supplied wholly or in part by the base material. B. impregnating a base by causing a coating material to extend or penetrate into the base material, or into the interstices of a porous, cellular or foraminous material. C. taking preparatory treatments of the base material, subsequent treatments of the coated base material and other ancillary noncoating operations claimed, per se, processes limited to etching for making a base more compatible with, or adherent to, the coating wherein the base is the substrate (work) onto which a coating is applied are included.

Subclass 163.2: Optical fiber, rod, filament, or waveguide
Subclass 165: Glass
Subclass 223: FLAME CONTACT
Subclass 255.18: Silicon containing coating
Subclass 261: Final coating nonuniform
Subclass 269: Glass or ceramic base
Subclass 377: Modified condition of atmosphere (e.g., steam, air movement, etc.)
Subclass 379: Plural heating or drying steps
Subclass 419.7: Boride, carbide, nitride, phosphide, silicide, or sulfide-containing coating

Class 375: Pulse Or Digital Communications

This is the generic class for pulse or digital communication systems using electrical or electromagnetic signals. Such communication includes transmitting an intelligence bearing signal from one point to another in the form of discrete variations in some parameter of the electrical or electromagnetic signal.

Subclass 296: Antinoise or distortion (includes predistortion)

Class 313: Electric Lamp And Discharge Devices

This is the generic class for electric lamp and electric space discharge device structure. Examples of such devices are electric incandescent lamps, gas or vapor filled electric discharge tubes, including lamps, mercury arc devices, vacuum discharge tubes, radio tubes, cyclotrons, cathode-ray tubes, photosensitive discharge devices, secondary emission electron multipliers, spark plugs, and open air arc and spark devices.

Subclass 504: Organic phosphor

Class 340: Communications: Electrical

Communications - the handling of information or intelligence, restricted to the conveying of said information or intelligence between geographically spaced points. Information or intelligence is defined as being, matter which is handled by signaling systems or signaling devices (such as telegraph systems) or by that portion of nonsignaling systems or nonsignaling devices (such as power supply systems) which is designated in the arts as having a control function (such as the supervisory circuits which control the circuit breakers of an electric power network). Handling, as used above, is defined as being the active coaction between the tangible communication system or device and the intangible information or intelligence, and such coaction may assume various forms, such as transmission, storage, exhibiting, etc.

Subclass 555: Light

Class 29: Metal Working

Metal working or shaping - it comprises processes, tools, machines, and apparatus not classifiable in the specific classes relating to the manufacture of articles from metal. It has been made the generic class for the following regardless of the composition of the blank, stock material, or article recited or worked upon: (a) process of electric condenser making; (b) a burnishing process; (c) a process of manufacture; (d) apparatus used to assemble or disassemble.

Subclass 834: With component orienting

Class 451: Abrading

The term "abrading" (grinding) may include a polishing device that acts by removal of an integral portion of the material acted upon, but not such as depends upon the application of a coating capable of taking a polish by friction or upon a compression, consolidation, or swaging of the material. Every invention relating to abrading must have to do either with an abrading element; a tool consisting of an abrading element or material and a holder by which it may be put to use; a machine embodying an abrading material or tool and means for moving it or the work, or an action equivalent to that of a tool; a holder for the work; a method or process of abrading; an attachment or accessory to a tool, machine, or process; or a plurality of these features. Note: A cutting device and an abrasive tool distinguished solely by the abrasive material or composition will be found elsewhere.

Subclass 36: Utilizing fluent abradant
Subclass 41: Glass or stone abrading

Class 117: Single-Crystal, Oriented-Crystal, And Epitaxy Growth Processes; Non-Coating Apparatus Therefor

Processes consisting of the single or repeated unit operation of forming a single-crystal of any type of material, including inorganic or organic; such processes combined with perfecting operations; and apparatus for conducting non-coating processes of this class.

Subclass 85: With a step of measuring, testing, or sensing

Class 414: Material Or Article Handling

Apparatus, device, implement or method for placing or displacing particular articles in a particular manner or with reference to a particular support, for loading or unloading vehicles with materials or objects in general, charging or discharging furnaces, bins, chambers, or other receptacles, stacking or piling articles or materials, also combinations of general types of carriers or forwarding mechanisms, which types, per se, are separately classified elsewhere, and general types of elevators, cranes, or hoists when associated with special means for handling the load to place it on the carrier or remove it therefrom.

Subclass 783: Orienter has article gripping means
Subclass 816: Of reorienting article

Class 198: Conveyors: Power-Driven

A power-driven conveyor is an assemblage of elements for moving a load over a predetermined path or path section. The assemblage generally includes a single frame structure mounting a power-driven load-advancing means which is used to advance the load over the predetermined path.

Subclass 380: With pressurized fluid causing change in attitude

Class 373: Industrial Electric Heating Furnaces

Apparatus of this class is characterized by the following: (1) Specialized to the use of electricity as the heat source; (2) heating within a chamber, enclosure, or other holding means; (3) melting of a charge (e.g., materials such as crushed ore or scrap), or preserving a melted charge in a molten state; and (4) manipulated, or operated in an industrial environment.

Subclass 11: Vaporizing furnace
Subclass 15: Ingot remelting