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Patent Summary

U.S. Patent Classes & Classifications Covered in this listing:

Class 359: Optical: Systems And Elements

Optical elements included in this class are: Lenses; Polarizers; Diffraction gratings; Prisms; Reflectors; Filters; Projection screens; Optical Modulators; Optical Demodulators. Among the optical systems included in this class are: Compound lens systems; Light reflecting signalling systems (e.g., retroreflectors); stereoscopic systems; Binocular devices; Systems of lenticular elements; Systems involving light interference; Glare reducing systems; Light dividing and combining systems; Light control systems (e.g., light valves); building illumination with natural light; Systems for protecting or shielding elements; Optical systems whose operation depends upon polarizing, diffracting, dispersing, reflecting, or refracting light; kaleidoscopes. Further included are certain apertures, closures, and viewing devices of a specialized nature which involve no intentional reflection, refraction, or filtering of light rays. This class also includes optical elements combined with another type of structure(s) to constitute an optical element combined with a nonoptical structure or a perfection or improvement in the optical element.

Subclass 248: Semiconductor
Subclass 281: Modulation of polarized light via modulating input signal
Subclass 290: By changing physical characteristics (e.g., shape, size or contours) of an optical element
Subclass 291: Shape or contour of light control surface altered
Subclass 321: Having particular chemical composition or structure
Subclass 341.2: Bi-directional
Subclass 343: Glass (amorphous)
Subclass 344: Semiconductor
Subclass 345: Particular pumping type (e.g., electrical, optical, nuclear, magnetic, etc.)
Subclass 484: Time invariant electric, magnetic, or electromagnetic field responsive (e.g., electro-optical, magneto-optical)
Subclass 487: By reflection or refraction (e.g., Brewster angle)
Subclass 494: By birefringent element
Subclass 495: For beam deflection or splitting
Subclass 496: Prisms
Subclass 497: Using plural elements
Subclass 499: Using compensation techniques
Subclass 569: Including particular grating characteristic
Subclass 578: Electrically or mechanically variable (e.g., tunable, adjustable)
Subclass 579: By nonmovable driving element (e.g., piezoelectric, magnetostrictive)
Subclass 890: Superimposed or series

Class 257: Active Solid-State Devices (E.G., Transistors, Solid-State Diodes)

This class provides for active solid-state electronic devices, that is, electronic devices or components that are made up primarily of solid materials, usually semiconductors, which operate by the movement of charge carriers - electrons or holes - which undergo energy level changes within the material and can modify an input voltage to achieve rectification, amplification, or switching action, and are not classified elsewhere.

Subclass 17: With particular barrier dimension
Subclass 21: Light responsive structure
Subclass 22: With specified semiconductor materials
Subclass 415: Physical deformation
Subclass 419: With thinned central active portion of semiconductor surrounded by thick insensitive portion (e.g. diaphragm type strain gauge)
Subclass 420: Means to reduce sensitivity to physical deformation
Subclass 431: Light
Subclass 432: With optical element
Subclass 436: With means for increasing light absorption (e.g., redirection of unabsorbed light)
Subclass 437: Antireflection coating
Subclass 443: Matrix or array (e.g., single line arrays)
Subclass 461: Light responsive pn junction
Subclass 464: With particular layer thickness (e.g., layer less than light absorption depth)
Subclass 680: With window means
Subclass 690: With contact or lead
Subclass 753: With adhesion promoting means (e.g., layer of material) to promote adhesion of contact to an insulating layer
Subclass 762: At least one layer containing silver or copper
Subclass 766: At least one layer containing chromium or nickel
Subclass 772: Solder composition
Subclass 85: With heterojunction
Subclass 98: With reflector, opaque mask, or optical element (e.g., lens, optical fiber, index of refraction matching layer, luminescent material layer, filter) integral with device or device enclosure or package
Subclass 99: With housing or contact structure
Subclass E21.215: Chemical or electrical treatment, e.g., electrolytic etching (EPO)
Subclass E21.231: Using mask (EPO)
Subclass E21.234: Characterized by their behavior during process, e.g., soluble mask, redeposited mask (EPO)
Subclass E21.508: Forming solder bumps (EPO)
Subclass E21.511: Mounting on insulating member provided with metallic leads, e.g., flip-chip mounting, conductive die mounting (EPO)
Subclass E21.542: Between components manufactured in active substrate comprising Group III-V compound semiconductor (EPO)
Subclass E21.697: Substrate is Group III-V semiconductor (EPO)
Subclass E23.021: Bump or ball contacts (EPO)
Subclass E23.054: Metallic layers on lead frames (EPO)
Subclass E23.111: Diamond (EPO)
Subclass E23.124: Device being completely enclosed (EPO)
Subclass E25.032: Comprising optoelectronic devices, e.g., LED, photodiodes (EPO)
Subclass E27.12: Including semiconductor component with at least one potential barrier or surface barrier adapted for light emission structurally associated with controlling devices having a variable impedance and not being light sensitive (EPO)
Subclass E27.128: With at least one potential barrier or surface barrier (EPO)
Subclass E31.032: Characterized by semiconductor body shape, relative size, or disposition of semiconductor regions (EPO)
Subclass E31.096: Hybrid device containing photosensitive and electroluminescent components within one single body (EPO)
Subclass E31.127: Optical element associated with device (EPO)
Subclass E31.13: Texturized surface (EPO)
Subclass E33.069: Comprising resonant cavity structure (e.g., Bragg reflector pair) (EPO)

Class 372: Coherent Light Generators

An assembly of electrical, mechanical, and optical components produces an intense, coherent, directional beam of light by stimulating electronic, ionic, or molecular transitions to lower energy levels.

Subclass 101: Lens or lens system
Subclass 102: Grating
Subclass 19: Mode discrimination
Subclass 26: Modulation
Subclass 36: Heat sink
Subclass 38.02: For driving or controlling laser
Subclass 38.09: Having fault protection circuitry
Subclass 43.01: Semiconductor
Subclass 45.01: Particular confinement layer
Subclass 46.01: Particular current control structure
Subclass 50.1: Monolithic integrated
Subclass 50.11: With diffraction grating (Bragg reflector)
Subclass 50.23: Having lens
Subclass 68: Plural active media or active media having plural dopants
Subclass 70: Pumping with optical or radiant energy
Subclass 75: Semiconductor
Subclass 96: Distributed feedback

Class 385: Optical Waveguides

(1) An optical waveguiding element, which conveys light from one point to another through an optically transparent elongated structure by modal transmission, total internal reflection, or total reflectorization. (2) A combination of an optical waveguiding element with an additional broadly recited optical element which couples light or a combination. (3) A combination of an optical waveguiding element with structure which mechanically joins this waveguiding element with another or with a diverse optical element. (4) An optical modulator where the modulation of a light wave characteristic is performed exclusively within an optical waveguiding element. (5) Other miscellaneous devices formed of an optical waveguide (e.g., a waveguide sensing device) and supplemental devices which are limited to use with an optical waveguide (e.g., an external clamp or retainer).

Subclass 130: Thin film optical waveguide
Subclass 131: Multilayer structure (mixture)
Subclass 132: Channel waveguide
Subclass 142: Of waveguide core
Subclass 16: Switch (i.e., switching from one terminal to another, not modulation)
Subclass 24: Plural (e.g., data bus)
Subclass 27: Particular coupling function
Subclass 36: Prism
Subclass 37: Grating
Subclass 39: Particular coupling structure
Subclass 40: Electrodes on or near the coupling region
Subclass 41: Directional coupler
Subclass 43: Tapered coupler
Subclass 45: Y coupler
Subclass 46: Star coupler
Subclass 48: Access couplers, power tappers, or power dividers
Subclass 49: Fiber to thin film devices
Subclass 50: Waveguide to waveguide
Subclass 8: Electro-optic
Subclass 83: Groove-type holding structure
Subclass 9: Coupling between waveguides
Subclass 90: Fiber adjustable relative to device
Subclass 92: With housing
Subclass 93: Including lens

Class 216: Etching A Substrate: Processes

Chemical etching processes for treating articles of commerce or intermediate articles not otherwise provided for in which one of the manufacturing steps includes a chemical etching step (use of an etchant) and wherein the material treated is not completely removed.

Subclass 107: Etchant contains fluoride ion
Subclass 108: Etchant contains acid

Class 438: Semiconductor Device Manufacturing: Process

This class provides for manufacturing a semiconductor containing a solid-state device for the following purposes: (a) conducting or modifying an electrical current, (b) storing electrical energy for subsequent discharge within a microelectronic integrated circuit, or (c) converting electromagnetic wave energy to electrical energy or electrical energy to electromagnetic energy. Also operations involving: (1) coating a substrate with a semiconductive material, or (2) coating a semiconductive substrate or substrate containing a semiconductive region. It also provides for operations involving etching a semiconductive substrate or etching a substrate containing a semiconductive region. The class provides for packaging or treatment of packaged semiconductor.

Subclass 118: Including adhesive bonding step
Subclass 23: Having diverse electrical device
Subclass 24: Including device responsive to nonelectrical signal
Subclass 25: Packaging (e.g., with mounting, encapsulating, etc.) or treatment of packaged semiconductor
Subclass 26: Packaging (e.g., with mounting, encapsulating, etc.) or treatment of packaged semiconductor
Subclass 29: Including integrally formed optical element (e.g., reflective layer, luminescent material, contoured surface, etc.)
Subclass 31: Optical waveguide structure
Subclass 32: Optical grating structure
Subclass 38: Passivating of surface
Subclass 403: Having semi-insulating component
Subclass 41: With epitaxial deposition of semiconductor adjacent mesa
Subclass 45: Dopant introduction into semiconductor region
Subclass 46: Compound semiconductor
Subclass 604: III-V compound semiconductor
Subclass 7: Optical characteristic sensed
Subclass 701: Tapered configuration
Subclass 72: Having reflective or antireflective component
Subclass 763: Layers formed of diverse composition or by diverse coating processes
Subclass 779: Compound semiconductor substrate
Subclass 798: Ionized irradiation (e.g., corpuscular or plasma treatment, etc.)
Subclass 93: Compound semiconductor

Class 117: Single-Crystal, Oriented-Crystal, And Epitaxy Growth Processes; Non-Coating Apparatus Therefor

Processes consisting of the single or repeated unit operation of forming a single-crystal of any type of material, including inorganic or organic; such processes combined with perfecting operations; and apparatus for conducting non-coating processes of this class.

Subclass 105: Including change in a growth-influencing parameter (e.g., composition, temperature, concentration, flow rate) during growth (e.g., multilayer or junction or superlattice growing)
Subclass 107: With movement of substrate or vapor or gas supply means during growth
Subclass 86: With responsive control

Class 250: Radiant Energy

This class provides for all methods and apparatus for using, generating, controlling or detecting radiant energy, combinations including such methods or apparatus, subcombinations of same and accessories therefore not classifiable elsewhere.

Subclass 214A: Amplifier type
Subclass 214LS: Switching type
Subclass 214R: Special photocell or electron tube circuits
Subclass 216: Optical or pre-photocell system
Subclass 551: Signal isolator

Class 327: Miscellaneous Active Electrical Nonlinear Devices, Circuits, And Systems

This is the residual class for electrical devices, circuits or systems having an output not directly proportional to its input and comprising at least one component which can provide gain or can route electrical current and which device, circuit or system does not form a complete system such as is classified specifically elsewhere or a subcombination of utility only in such elsewhere classified system.

Subclass 205: Using hysteresis (e.g., Schmitt trigger, etc.)
Subclass 312: By feedback limiting-clamping
Subclass 483: Darlington connection

Class 330: Amplifiers

This is the generic class for amplifiers, included: Amplifiers having all types of active elements (or amplifying devices), amplifier systems having plural amplifier channels, cascade amplifiers, push-pull amplifiers and other amplifiers having plural amplifier devices. Also included are amplifiers with plural signal sources or plural loads. Amplifiers including the means coupling the signal source to the amplifier or coupling the amplifier to the load or between cascaded stages are also included. Amplifiers combined with tone control means. Amplifiers combined with amplitude (volume) control means whether by manual control, by control of an electrode D.C. bias. Amplifiers combined with power supply. Amplifiers combined with structural features of the amplifier or the amplifier circuit elements. Amplifiers having signal feedback means.

Subclass 283: Having emitter degeneration
Subclass 284: Having attenuation means in signal transmission path
Subclass 285: Having particular biasing means

Class 377: Electrical Pulse Counters, Pulse Dividers, Or Shift Registers: Circuits And Systems

This is the generic class for circuits or devices for making a count of electrical pulses; for circuits or devices for producing output pulses which are a fraction of the number of input. Also included are pulse multipliers which make use of pulse dividing circuits.


Class 501: Compositions: Ceramic

This is the generic class for: Glass compositions and compositions for making glass, i.e., glass batch compositions, devitrified glass-ceramic compositions and processes for producing such compositions. These compositions may be regarded as thermoplastic compositions. Refractory compositions comprising primarily earthy, inorganic materials, and/or elemental carbon. Fired clay containing compositions in the nature of porcelain, earthenware, and similar materials. These compositions may be regarded as thermosetting compositions

Subclass 33: Beads
Subclass 44: Fluorine and phosphorus containing

Class 148: Metal Treatment

Treating metal to modify or maintain the internal physical structure or chemical properties of metal. Most processes in this class relate to treating solid or semisolid metal with heat, without melting a substantial portion thereof, and also includes the combination of significant heating and working not provided for in other metal working classes. Cooling of metal to produce microstructure change is proper for this class. It includes processes of treating metal to intentionally develop, improve, modify, or preserve the magnetic properties of a free metal or alloy, occurring alone or mixed with one or more components. Also included are processes of reactive coating of metal wherein an externally supplied carburizing or nitriding agent is combined with the metal substrate to produce a carburized or nitridized or carbonitrided coating thereon or a uniformly carburized, nitrided, or carbonitrided metal alloy containing a metal element from said substrate.

Subclass 33.4: With contiguous layers of different semiconductive material

Class 228: Metal Fusion Bonding

Method of joining the meeting faces of juxtaposed or engaged metal work parts or of the same part originally in a form-sustaining state, by the direct application of heat and/or mechanical energy to either of: (a) such work parts, to such an extent as to effect a flowing or blending together of some of the metal in neighboring regions of said work parts into a continuous metallic zone interconnecting said work parts, or (b) such work parts and a metallic filler, to such an extent as to effect a flowing or blending together of the filler and some of the metal of said work portions into a continuous metallic zone interconnecting said work portions with filler and thus with each other.

Subclass 105: Using optical viewing means (e.g., microscope)
Subclass 123.1: Semiconductor-type nonmetallic material
Subclass 180.22: Lead-less (or bumped) device
Subclass 212: With clamping or holding
Subclass 215: By confining filler
Subclass 254: Adherent solid layer or coating (e.g., pretinned)

Class 356: Optics: Measuring And Testing

Methods and apparatus (1) for analyzing light to measure or test its characteristics, such as intensity, color and polarization; (2) for determining the optical or nonoptical properties of materials or articles by noting, as by inspection, measurement, or test the effect produced by the materials or articles on light associated therewith; and (3) for measuring the dimensions of structures or the spatial relationships such as distances or angle bearings of spaced points by comparison of the respective properties (usually direction or spatial position) of the light from these points or by comparison of the properties of these lights with some scale or standard. The light analyzing includes or is for spectroscopy, interference, polarization, beam direction or pattern, focal position of a light source, shade or color, and photometers. The material or article properties determined are or involve crystal or gem examination, material strain analysis, blood analysis, optical pyrometers, egg candling, cutting blade sharpness, oil testing, document verification, flatness, lens or reflector testing, refraction testing, monitoring moving webs or fabrics, light transmission or absorption, light reflection, inspection for flaws or imperfections in materials, and thread counting. The dimensioning and spatial relationship determination includes triangulation by a light beam, contour plotting, range or height finders, motion stopping, velocity or velocity/height measuring, sighting where the optical element or reticle moves with the sighted object, particle size determination, particle light scattering, electrophoresis, angle measuring or axial alignment, mensuration or configuration comparison, alignment in a lateral direction, and fiducial instruments.

Subclass 620: Special mark or target on object

Class 348: Television

Generating, processing, transmitting or transiently displaying a sequence of images, either locally or remotely, in which the local light variations composing the images may change with time.

Subclass 95: Alignment or positioning

Class 264: Plastic And Nonmetallic Article Shaping Or Treating: Processes

Processes for molding, casting, or shaping of nonmetallic materials to produce articles. Liquid or melt comminuting of materials other than glass or metal. Uniting or compacting of bulk or randomly assembled particles. Furnace Lining or repair. Melt shaping in the absence of a mold or shaping surface, e.g., spheroidizing of particles. Working or treatment of nonmetallic materials not otherwise provided for.

Subclass 2.5: Including step of mold making

Class 362: Illumination

Means and processes for casting visible radiant energy in at least one direction to render objects in that direction visible.

Subclass 330: Panel type

Class 398: Optical Communications

This class provides for all types of communication systems in which optical signals are used to transmit modulated carrier wave information between points. Such communication includes transmitting an intelligence-bearing signal from one point to another in the form of variations in a characteristic of the light wave. The communication may be through free space, fibers or waveguides. These are used to transfer the information with an optical beam, and this beam can be used in various communication schemes to enable the most effective or desired method of moving the information, including optical multiplexing when plural information signals or plural transmitters and receivers are utilized.

Subclass 141: Including optical waveguide
Subclass 202: RECEIVER
Subclass 65: Polarization

Class 134: Cleaning And Liquid Contact With Solids

Cleaning, i.e., the separation or removal of adherent dirt, scale, tarnish, impurities or any other foreign or undesired matter from solid materials or objects whether or not the resultant separated ingredients are recovered in whole or in part for subsequent use. Cleaning may be performed by, or may involve as a part thereof, contacting solids with liquids. The contacting of solids with liquids may be for purposes other than cleaning.

Subclass 1.2: Semiconductor cleaning

Class 29: Metal Working

Metal working or shaping - it comprises processes, tools, machines, and apparatus not classifiable in the specific classes relating to the manufacture of articles from metal. It has been made the generic class for the following regardless of the composition of the blank, stock material, or article recited or worked upon: (a) process of electric condenser making; (b) a burnishing process; (c) a process of manufacture; (d) apparatus used to assemble or disassemble.

Subclass 721: For work-holder for assembly or disassembly
Subclass 743: Means to apply vacuum directly to position or hold work part

Class 716: Data Processing: Design And Analysis Of Circuit Or Semiconductor Mask

This class provides for electrical data processing apparatus and corresponding methods for the following subject matter: for sketching, designing, and analyzing circuit components; for planning, designing, analyzing, and devising a template used for etching circuit pattern on semiconductor wafers.


Class 428: Stock Material Or Miscellaneous Articles

This is the residual class for: 1. Stock material in the form of a structurally defined web, sheet, rod, strand, fiber, filament, cell, flake, particle not provided elsewhere. 2. Stock material in the form of a web, sheet, mass or layer which consists of or contains a structurally defined constituent or element. 3. A nonstructural laminate defined merely in terms of the composition of one or more layers. 4. An article of manufacture or an intermediate-article not provided for elsewhere. 5. A process for applying an impregnating material to a naturally solid product such as a wood beam, a sheet of leather or a stone, or for applying a coating to a base, and which process includes no significant method step.

Subclass 472: Refractory metal salt or oxide
Subclass 646: Sn-base component
Subclass 673: Ag-base component
Subclass 688: Of inorganic material

Class 65: Glass Manufacturing

(1) processes and/or apparatus for making stock or articles of those ceramic masses, which generally include a "glass former" or an oxide which approaches glass forming properties, in their composition and which are formed by fusion of raw materials (generally mixtures, most of which are of an earthy nature - as distinguished from metallic, organic, etc., - silicon, silica, and slag are included) at ordinary high furnace temperatures, by working (molding, shaping, etc.) of the mass after being melted or changed to a plastic or softened state by heating; and (2) processes and/or apparatus for treating stock or articles made

Subclass 384: Temperature
Subclass 386: Planar waveguides
Subclass 427: Consolidating preform (e.g., sintering, etc.)

Class 427: Coating Processes

This is the generic class for: A. applying or obtaining a coating on a surface. The coating may be hard or soft, permanent or transitory, supplied solely by extraneous materials or supplied wholly or in part by the base material. B. impregnating a base by causing a coating material to extend or penetrate into the base material, or into the interstices of a porous, cellular or foraminous material. C. taking preparatory treatments of the base material, subsequent treatments of the coated base material and other ancillary noncoating operations claimed, per se, processes limited to etching for making a base more compatible with, or adherent to, the coating wherein the base is the substrate (work) onto which a coating is applied are included.

Subclass 163.2: Optical fiber, rod, filament, or waveguide
Subclass 189: Uniting particles to form continuous coating with nondiscernible particles
Subclass 190: Metallic compound particles
Subclass 193: Vitrifiable particles
Subclass 223: FLAME CONTACT
Subclass 376.2: Metal oxide- or silicon-containing coating (e.g., glazed, vitreous enamel, etc.)

Class 369: Dynamic Information Storage Or Retrieval

Apparatus for the storage or retrieval of arbitrarily variable information which is retained in a storage medium by variation of a physical characteristic. The information is stored or retrieved by causing or sensing a variation of a physical characteristic of the storage medium by a transducer having relative motion along a continuous path.

Subclass 121: With particular light source (e.g., laser, CRT with phosphor)
Subclass 122: Solid state
Subclass 126: Electrical modification or sensing of storage medium (e.g., capacitive, resistive, electrostatic charge)
Subclass 44.12: Solid state optical element with plural dissimilar optical components (e.g., using I.C. block, etc.)

Class 850: Scanning-probe techniques or apparatus; applications of scanning-probe techniques, e.g., scanning probe microscopy [spm]

This class covers Scanning probes, i.e., devices having at least a tip of nanometre sized dimensions that scans or moves over an object surface, typically at a distance of a few angstroms or nanometres, monitoring some interaction between the tip and the surface, e.g., monitoring the generation of a tunnelling current and techniques or apparatus involving the use of scanning probes. The following subjects are therefore covered, the list being non-exhaustive: scanning probes, per se, their manufacture or their related instrumentation, e.g., holders; scanning probe microscopy (SPM) or microscopes, i.e., the application of scanning probes to the investigation or analysis of a surface structure in atomic ranges; applications, other than SPM, involving the use of scanning probes.

Subclass 30: Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy [SNOM] or apparatus therefor, e.g., SNOM probes (EPO)

Class G9B/7.097:

Class G9B/7.107: