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Patent Summary

U.S. Patent Classes & Classifications Covered in this listing:

Class 438: Semiconductor Device Manufacturing: Process

This class provides for manufacturing a semiconductor containing a solid-state device for the following purposes: (a) conducting or modifying an electrical current, (b) storing electrical energy for subsequent discharge within a microelectronic integrated circuit, or (c) converting electromagnetic wave energy to electrical energy or electrical energy to electromagnetic energy. Also operations involving: (1) coating a substrate with a semiconductive material, or (2) coating a semiconductive substrate or substrate containing a semiconductive region. It also provides for operations involving etching a semiconductive substrate or etching a substrate containing a semiconductive region. The class provides for packaging or treatment of packaged semiconductor.

Subclass 118: Including adhesive bonding step
Subclass 122: Possessing thermal dissipation structure (i.e., heat sink)
Subclass 183: Dummy gate
Subclass 22: MAKING DEVICE OR CIRCUIT EMISSIVE OF NONELECTRICAL SIGNAL
Subclass 27: Having additional optical element (e.g., optical fiber, etc.)
Subclass 29: Including integrally formed optical element (e.g., reflective layer, luminescent material, contoured surface, etc.)
Subclass 31: Optical waveguide structure
Subclass 415: Thermomigration
Subclass 455: BONDING OF PLURAL SEMICONDUCTOR SUBSTRATES
Subclass 460: SEMICONDUCTOR SUBSTRATE DICING
Subclass 464: With attachment to temporary support or carrier
Subclass 48: MAKING DEVICE OR CIRCUIT RESPONSIVE TO NONELECTRICAL SIGNAL
Subclass 51: Packaging (e.g., with mounting, encapsulating, etc.) or treatment of packaged semiconductor
Subclass 52: Having cantilever element
Subclass 68: Substrate dicing
Subclass 690: Combined with the removal of material by nonchemical means (e.g., ablating, abrading, etc.)
Subclass 694: Combined with coating step
Subclass 697: Planarization by etching and coating
Subclass 723: Silicon oxide or glass
Subclass 745: Liquid phase etching
Subclass 747: With relative movement between substrate and confined pool of etchant
Subclass 749: Sequential application of etchant
Subclass 924: To facilitate selective etching
Subclass 944: Shadow
Subclass 976: TEMPORARY PROTECTIVE LAYER

Class 250: Radiant Energy

This class provides for all methods and apparatus for using, generating, controlling or detecting radiant energy, combinations including such methods or apparatus, subcombinations of same and accessories therefore not classifiable elsewhere.

Subclass 282: Methods
Subclass 339.09: With calibration steps in measurement process
Subclass 201.1: Photocell controls its own optical systems
Subclass 201.9: Light beam wavefront phase adaptation
Subclass 214R: Special photocell or electron tube circuits
Subclass 214A: Amplifier type
Subclass 214LA: Light amplifier type
Subclass 216: Optical or pre-photocell system
Subclass 227.19: With coherent interferrometric light
Subclass 227.24: With coupling enhancement means
Subclass 230: Reflection type(e.g., mirror galvanometer)
Subclass 234: Means for moving optical system

Class 385: Optical Waveguides

(1) An optical waveguiding element, which conveys light from one point to another through an optically transparent elongated structure by modal transmission, total internal reflection, or total reflectorization. (2) A combination of an optical waveguiding element with an additional broadly recited optical element which couples light or a combination. (3) A combination of an optical waveguiding element with structure which mechanically joins this waveguiding element with another or with a diverse optical element. (4) An optical modulator where the modulation of a light wave characteristic is performed exclusively within an optical waveguiding element. (5) Other miscellaneous devices formed of an optical waveguide (e.g., a waveguide sensing device) and supplemental devices which are limited to use with an optical waveguide (e.g., an external clamp or retainer).

Subclass 11: POLARIZATION WITHOUT MODULATION
Subclass 115: OPTICAL FIBER BUNDLE
Subclass 116: Imaging (i.e., with coherent fiber structure and includes shaping, enhancing, and correcting)
Subclass 119: With lens or mirror
Subclass 120: Fiber bundle plate
Subclass 123: OPTICAL FIBER WAVEGUIDE WITH CLADDING
Subclass 129: PLANAR OPTICAL WAVEGUIDE
Subclass 13: Including physical deformation or movement of waveguide
Subclass 130: Thin film optical waveguide
Subclass 131: Multilayer structure (mixture)
Subclass 132: Channel waveguide
Subclass 137: Fiber holder (i.e., for single fiber or holding multiple single fibers together)
Subclass 139: Plug/termination device
Subclass 14: INTEGRATED OPTICAL CIRCUIT
Subclass 140: Attenuator
Subclass 141: HAVING PARTICULAR OPTICAL CHARACTERISTIC MODIFYING CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
Subclass 147: MISCELLANEOUS
Subclass 15: WITH OPTICAL COUPLER
Subclass 16: Switch (i.e., switching from one terminal to another, not modulation)
Subclass 17: Matrix switch (i.e., M X N, where M and N are 3 or more)
Subclass 18: Reflective-type switch
Subclass 19: Stationary waveguides with movable opaque element
Subclass 24: Plural (e.g., data bus)
Subclass 25: Movable coupler
Subclass 33: Lens
Subclass 34: Rod type
Subclass 35: Spherical
Subclass 36: Prism
Subclass 37: Grating
Subclass 39: Particular coupling structure
Subclass 46: Star coupler
Subclass 47: Multiport coupler using reflective surface
Subclass 49: Fiber to thin film devices
Subclass 51: Permanently fixed coupler
Subclass 52: With alignment device
Subclass 88: Optical fiber to a nonfiber optical device connector
Subclass 89: Plural fiber/device connections
Subclass 92: With housing
Subclass 93: Including lens

Class 398: Optical Communications

This class provides for all types of communication systems in which optical signals are used to transmit modulated carrier wave information between points. Such communication includes transmitting an intelligence-bearing signal from one point to another in the form of variations in a characteristic of the light wave. The communication may be through free space, fibers or waveguides. These are used to transfer the information with an optical beam, and this beam can be used in various communication schemes to enable the most effective or desired method of moving the information, including optical multiplexing when plural information signals or plural transmitters and receivers are utilized.

Subclass 161: Using delay
Subclass 183: Having particular modulation
Subclass 188: Phase modulation
Subclass 192: Including compensation
Subclass 193: Precompensation (e.g., prechirping, predistortion
Subclass 201: Including specific optical elements
Subclass 212: Including optical element (e.g., lens, mirror, etc.)
Subclass 25: Determination of communication parameter
Subclass 27: Bit error rate
Subclass 79: Wavelength division or frequency division (e.g., Raman, Brillouin, etc.)
Subclass 82: By optical coupling
Subclass 9: DIAGNOSTIC TESTING
Subclass 90: Electrically controlled single source
Subclass 92: Including pumping

Class 257: Active Solid-State Devices (E.G., Transistors, Solid-State Diodes)

This class provides for active solid-state electronic devices, that is, electronic devices or components that are made up primarily of solid materials, usually semiconductors, which operate by the movement of charge carriers - electrons or holes - which undergo energy level changes within the material and can modify an input voltage to achieve rectification, amplification, or switching action, and are not classified elsewhere.

Subclass 21: Light responsive structure
Subclass 80: In combination with or also constituting light responsive device
Subclass 82: Discrete light emitting and light responsive devices
Subclass 98: With reflector, opaque mask, or optical element (e.g., lens, optical fiber, index of refraction matching layer, luminescent material layer, filter) integral with device or device enclosure or package
Subclass 184: Light responsive structure
Subclass 186: Avalanche photodetection structure
Subclass 191: Having graded composition
Subclass 192: Field effect transistor
Subclass 257: Light responsive or combined with light responsive device
Subclass 258: In imaging array
Subclass 458: PIN detector, including combinations with non-light responsive active devices
Subclass 623: Mesa structure (e.g., including undercut or stepped mesa configuration or having constant slope taper)
Subclass 659: WITH SHIELDING (E.G., ELECTRICAL OR MAGNETIC SHIELDING, OR FROM ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION OR CHARGED PARTICLES)
Subclass 704: Cap or lid
Subclass 710: With specified means (e.g., lip) to seal base to cap
Subclass 734: COMBINED WITH ELECTRICAL CONTACT OR LEAD
Subclass 758: Multiple metal levels on semiconductor, separated by insulating layer (e.g., multiple level metallization for integrated circuit)
Subclass 773: Of specified configuration
Subclass 781: Layered contact, lead or bond
Subclass 784: Wire contact, lead, or bond
Subclass 786: Configuration or pattern of bonds
Subclass E31.022: Including ternary or quaternary compound (EPO)
Subclass E31.033: Multiple quantum well structure (EPO)
Subclass E31.043: Including polycrystalline semiconductor (EPO)
Subclass E31.054: Device sensitive to infrared, visible, or ultraviolet radiation (EPO)
Subclass E31.057: PN homojunction potential barrier (EPO)
Subclass E31.063: Potential barrier working in avalanche mode (e.g., avalanche photodiode) (EPO)
Subclass E31.1: Device with potential or surface barrier (EPO)
Subclass E27.122: Including active semiconductor component sensitive to infrared radiation, light, or electromagnetic radiation of a shorter wavelength (EPO)
Subclass E29.091: In different semiconductor regions (e.g., heterojunctions) (EPO)
Subclass E23.02: Bonding areas, e.g., pads (EPO)
Subclass E23.144: Capacitive arrangements or effects of, or between wiring layers (EPO)
Subclass E23.179: Marks applied to semiconductor devices or parts, e.g., registration marks, test patterns, alignment structures, wafer maps (EPO)
Subclass E23.181: Characterized by shape of container or parts, e.g., caps, walls (EPO)
Subclass E23.189: Leads being parallel to base (EPO)
Subclass E23.193: Characterized by material or arrangement of seals between parts, e.g., between cap and base of container or between leads and walls of container (EPO)
Subclass E21.034: For lift-off process (EPO)
Subclass E21.131: Selective epilaxial growth, e.g., simultaneous deposition of mono- and non-mono semiconductor material (EPO)
Subclass E21.142: Diffusion into or out of Group III-V compound (EPO)
Subclass E21.231: Using mask (EPO)
Subclass E21.237: Mechanical treatment, e.g., grinding, polishing, cutting (EPO)
Subclass E21.293: Of silicon nitride (EPO)
Subclass E21.599: With subsequent division of substrate into plural individual devices (EPO)

Class 225: Severing By Tearing Or Breaking

Devices or processes accomplishing manual severing of indefinite length material such as strands or webs or of fixed length material such as sheets, cards, or tickets wherein a blade having a severing edge is provided and wherein the severing edge is fixed in position with respect to a portion of the work material during severance, the work itself is directly manually grasped on one side of the edge and forced against the edge to effect severance along that edge while at least some portion of the work on the opposite side of the edge is restrained from movement during severance to thereby prevent any portion of the work from being transported across the edge.

Subclass 1: METHODS
Subclass 2: With preliminary weakening
Subclass 4: Transversely of continuously fed work
Subclass 5: Progressively to or from one side edge

Class 430: Radiation Imagery Chemistry: Process, Composition, Or Product Thereof

This is the generic class for: (1) Forming the likeness of an object, or an instrumented or discernible phenomenon, in a chemically defined receiver or in a receiver wherein radiation produces a chemical reaction, by use of radiation. (2) Finishing an image by chemical processing regardless how formed. (3) A radiation sensitive receiver, composition, or product disclosed solely for radiation imagery chemistry, and process of making same. (4) A nonradiation sensitive-receiver, composition, or product. (5) An imaged product by a process or employing a receiver, composition, or product.

Subclass 1: HOLOGRAPHIC PROCESS, COMPOSITION, OR PRODUCT
Subclass 2: Composition or product or process of making the same
Subclass 22: REGISTRATION OR LAYOUT PROCESS OTHER THAN COLOR PROOFING
Subclass 133: Applying radiation-sensitive layer
Subclass 144: Powder development of tacky surface
Subclass 155: Product with at least two named layers
Subclass 173: At least two couplers
Subclass 181: Phenol coupler included
Subclass 290: Light scattering or refractive index image formation

Class 359: Optical: Systems And Elements

Optical elements included in this class are: Lenses; Polarizers; Diffraction gratings; Prisms; Reflectors; Filters; Projection screens; Optical Modulators; Optical Demodulators. Among the optical systems included in this class are: Compound lens systems; Light reflecting signalling systems (e.g., retroreflectors); stereoscopic systems; Binocular devices; Systems of lenticular elements; Systems involving light interference; Glare reducing systems; Light dividing and combining systems; Light control systems (e.g., light valves); building illumination with natural light; Systems for protecting or shielding elements; Optical systems whose operation depends upon polarizing, diffracting, dispersing, reflecting, or refracting light; kaleidoscopes. Further included are certain apertures, closures, and viewing devices of a specialized nature which involve no intentional reflection, refraction, or filtering of light rays. This class also includes optical elements combined with another type of structure(s) to constitute an optical element combined with a nonoptical structure or a perfection or improvement in the optical element.

Subclass 237: OPTICAL MODULATOR
Subclass 239: Modulator output feedback to modulator
Subclass 245: Electro-optic
Subclass 248: Semiconductor
Subclass 260: Etalon structure
Subclass 283: With particular direction of the field in relation to the medium, beam direction or polarization
Subclass 290: By changing physical characteristics (e.g., shape, size or contours) of an optical element
Subclass 291: Shape or contour of light control surface altered
Subclass 292: Light control surface forms image on projected light beam
Subclass 295: Having multiple electrodes
Subclass 298: Light wave directional modulation (e.g., deflection or scanning is representative of the modulating signal)
Subclass 3: Having particular recording medium
Subclass 318: By reflection
Subclass 321: Having particular chemical composition or structure
Subclass 326: OPTICAL FREQUENCY CONVERTER
Subclass 337.1: Spectral gain flattening or equalization
Subclass 341.1: Optical fiber
Subclass 494: By birefringent element
Subclass 587: Plural layer groups lateral in parallel light paths
Subclass 589: Selective wavelength transmission or reflection
Subclass 652: With graded refractive index
Subclass 822: Adjustable
Subclass 850: Plural mirrors or reflecting surfaces
Subclass 855: Identical adjacent mirrors identically supported
Subclass 856: With successive reflections
Subclass 857: With successive reflections
Subclass 862: Including an adjustable mirror

Class 65: Glass Manufacturing

(1) processes and/or apparatus for making stock or articles of those ceramic masses, which generally include a "glass former" or an oxide which approaches glass forming properties, in their composition and which are formed by fusion of raw materials (generally mixtures, most of which are of an earthy nature - as distinguished from metallic, organic, etc., - silicon, silica, and slag are included) at ordinary high furnace temperatures, by working (molding, shaping, etc.) of the mass after being melted or changed to a plastic or softened state by heating; and (2) processes and/or apparatus for treating stock or articles made

Subclass 385: Process of manufacturing optical fibers, waveguides, or preforms thereof
Subclass 391: Plasma utilized
Subclass 406: Joining or bonding optical fibers, waveguides, or preforms (e.g., coupling, etc.)
Subclass 433: With cutting or severing
Subclass 435: With fiber stretching, drawing, or pulling (e.g., from rod, etc.)
Subclass 436: Plasma utilized
Subclass 484: With measuring, controlling, sensing, timing, inspecting, indicating, or testing means
Subclass 17.3: With shaping of particulate material and subsequent fusing of particles
Subclass 17.5: Employing nonoxide additive
Subclass 36: Fusion bonding of glass to a formed part

Class 372: Coherent Light Generators

An assembly of electrical, mechanical, and optical components produces an intense, coherent, directional beam of light by stimulating electronic, ionic, or molecular transitions to lower energy levels.

Subclass 9: PARTICULAR BEAM CONTROL DEVICE
Subclass 20: Tuning
Subclass 26: Modulation
Subclass 27: Polarization
Subclass 28: Frequency
Subclass 29.01: Having particular beam control circuit component
Subclass 29.011: Feedback circuitry
Subclass 29.016: Controlling beam phase
Subclass 29.02: Optical output stabilization
Subclass 31: Amplitude
Subclass 32: Frequency
Subclass 34: PARTICULAR TEMPERATURE CONTROL
Subclass 38.1: PARTICULAR COMPONENT CIRCUITRY
Subclass 38.01: Having feedback circuitry
Subclass 38.02: For driving or controlling laser
Subclass 45.01: Particular confinement layer
Subclass 49.01: Particular coating on facet
Subclass 50.1: Monolithic integrated
Subclass 54: Particular structural features
Subclass 71: End-pumped laser
Subclass 92: PARTICULAR RESONANT CAVITY
Subclass 96: Distributed feedback
Subclass 101: Lens or lens system
Subclass 102: Grating
Subclass 103: Window, aperture, and mask

Class 118: Coating Apparatus

pparatus for applying or obtaining a surface coating on a base and/or apparatus for impregnating base materials and takes all such apparatus not provided for in other classes. The coating obtained may be permanent or transitory. The coating may be supplied solely by extraneous materials, as in a painting or waxing operation, or may be supplied wholly or in part by the base materials as in the formation of an oxide coating on a metal base. The coating may consist of an emulsion, dispersion, solution, admixture or oil which is clearly disclosed as leaving a residual film, layer or continuous deposit on the base.

Subclass 504: WORK SURFACE SHIELDS, MASKS OR PROTECTORS

Class 216: Etching A Substrate: Processes

Chemical etching processes for treating articles of commerce or intermediate articles not otherwise provided for in which one of the manufacturing steps includes a chemical etching step (use of an etchant) and wherein the material treated is not completely removed.

Subclass 17: Forming or treating of groove or through hole
Subclass 2: ETCHING OF SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIAL TO PRODUCE AN ARTICLE HAVING A NONELECTRICAL FUNCTION
Subclass 24: FORMING OR TREATING OPTICAL ARTICLE
Subclass 39: FORMING GROOVE OR HOLE IN A SUBSTRATE WHICH IS SUBSEQUENTLY FILLED OR COATED
Subclass 67: Using plasma
Subclass 72: Etching a multiple layered substrate where the etching condition used produces a different etching rate or characteristic between at least two of the layers of the substrate
Subclass 88: Using film of etchant between a stationary surface and a moving surface (e.g., chemical lapping, etc.)

Class 427: Coating Processes

This is the generic class for: A. applying or obtaining a coating on a surface. The coating may be hard or soft, permanent or transitory, supplied solely by extraneous materials or supplied wholly or in part by the base material. B. impregnating a base by causing a coating material to extend or penetrate into the base material, or into the interstices of a porous, cellular or foraminous material. C. taking preparatory treatments of the base material, subsequent treatments of the coated base material and other ancillary noncoating operations claimed, per se, processes limited to etching for making a base more compatible with, or adherent to, the coating wherein the base is the substrate (work) onto which a coating is applied are included.

Subclass 282: Mask or stencil utilized
Subclass 307: Etching, swelling, or dissolving out part of the base
Subclass 309: Inorganic base
Subclass 573: With heated substrate
Subclass 58: ELECTRICAL PRODUCT PRODUCED
Subclass 97.3: Nonuniform or patterned coating
Subclass 98.5: With pretreatment of substrate

Class 333: Wave Transmission Lines And Networks

Electric wave transmission systems wherein electromagnetic wave energy is guided or constrained by a wave transmission device of the long line type other than loaded lines. Included are passive wave transmission networks simulating the characteristics of a long line wave transmission systems or wave guides, such as artificial lines, delay networks, resonators, impedance matching networks, equalizers, wave filters and transmission line terminations. Passive coupling networks and terminating networks having either lumped or distributed electrical circuit parameters and having impedance characteristics. Smoothing type wave filters having shunt capacitance, or series inductance. Networks including a wave transmission device and means for decreasing the amplitude range of the signal applied to the transmission device as the signal increases in amplitude and means for increasing or restoring the amplitude range of the signal after the transmission over the transmission device. Passive networks for producing an output wave which is the time derivative or time integral of the input wave. Systems including active elements for producing across at least two of the system terminals a negative resistance, and/or an inductance, or capacitance which may be positive or negative. Wave traps using long line elements.

Subclass 138: Delay lines including a lumped parameter
Subclass 140: Physical structure
Subclass 156: Delay lines including long line elements
Subclass 161: Planar line structure (e.g., stripline)
Subclass 164: Control of delay with semiconductive means
Subclass 18: With control of equalizer and/or delay network
Subclass 186: Electromechanical filter
Subclass 219: RESONATORS (DISTRIBUTED PARAMETER TYPE)
Subclass 260: Connectors and interconnections
Subclass 28R: Equalizers

Class 219: Electric Heating

This class includes all those devices commonly known as electric heaters, electric-heating metal working apparatus, electrically-heated tools and instruments. This is the generic class for electric heating devices, per se. Devices and systems equipped with electric heating means in which the electric heating means is combined with or includes specific other art structure whereby the heated material is withdrawn, stored or otherwise utilized will also be classified in the appropriate other art class to which it pertains.

Subclass 121.65: Melting
Subclass 121.66: Methods
Subclass 121.79: Path adjustment
Subclass 121.82: Workpiece position control

Class 156: Adhesive Bonding And Miscellaneous Chemical Manufacture

This is the generic class for: Manufacturing processes and apparatus; manufacture of articles of commerce in which one of the manufacturing steps includes a chemical reaction; manufacture of panels from settable inorganic compositions; manufacture of electrical conductors of indefinite length.

Subclass 308.2: By tackifying substance of self-sustaining lamina to be bonded; e.g., autogenous bonding, etc.
Subclass 344: Delaminating, per se
Subclass 584: DELAMINATING APPARATUS
Subclass 89.11: With vitrification or firing ceramic material

Class 436: Chemistry: Analytical And Immunological Testing

This is the generic class for: chemical test standards, analytical compositions, and processes which involve a chemical reaction for determining qualitatively or quantitatively the presence of a chemical element, compound or complex in a composition or a chemical compound, or an element or radical in a compound; processes for analysis which involve an in vitro antigen-antibody, immunological or protein binding interaction other than those involving a living antigen, or enzyme label; and processes of analysis or study of the chemical properties of a sample; the physiological effect of a sample; or chemical determination of a physical property of a sample. Compositions and their mere methods of use of thermoparticulating compositions. Combinations of tests or measurements with methods of regulating a chemical reaction not otherwise provided for in a chemical synthesis class or otherwise.

Subclass 145: CARBON CONTAINING

Class 439: Electrical Connectors

This is the generic class for a pair of mated conductors comprising at least two electrically conducting elements which are interconnected to permit relative motion of such conducting elements during use without a break in electrical conductivity therebetween. Also, this is the generic class for a device constituting an electricity conducting contact between conductors of electricity; wherein the joint is of a type which may be readily made and broken, repeatedly by attachment and detachment of contact supporting structure on each conductor.

Subclass 581: Adapted to join cable conductors to different type conductors (e.g., to PCB conductors)
Subclass 61: Receives plural panel circuit edges
Subclass 63: For receiving coaxial connector

Class 330: Amplifiers

This is the generic class for amplifiers, included: Amplifiers having all types of active elements (or amplifying devices), amplifier systems having plural amplifier channels, cascade amplifiers, push-pull amplifiers and other amplifiers having plural amplifier devices. Also included are amplifiers with plural signal sources or plural loads. Amplifiers including the means coupling the signal source to the amplifier or coupling the amplifier to the load or between cascaded stages are also included. Amplifiers combined with tone control means. Amplifiers combined with amplitude (volume) control means whether by manual control, by control of an electrode D.C. bias. Amplifiers combined with power supply. Amplifiers combined with structural features of the amplifier or the amplifier circuit elements. Amplifiers having signal feedback means.

Subclass 59: HAVING LIGHT-CONTROLLED OR ACTIVATED DEVICE (I.E., NOT LIGHT SIGNAL)

Class 264: Plastic And Nonmetallic Article Shaping Or Treating: Processes

Processes for molding, casting, or shaping of nonmetallic materials to produce articles. Liquid or melt comminuting of materials other than glass or metal. Uniting or compacting of bulk or randomly assembled particles. Furnace Lining or repair. Melt shaping in the absence of a mold or shaping surface, e.g., spheroidizing of particles. Working or treatment of nonmetallic materials not otherwise provided for.

Subclass 430: Producing or treating inorganic material, not as pigments, conductive enhancers, or fillers (e.g., ceramic, refractory material, etc.)
Subclass 483: Plasma (e.g., corona, glow discharge, etc.)
Subclass 653: Including plural heating steps
Subclass 660: With drying of shaped article or preform using nonsintering heat
Subclass 681: Producing metal oxide containing product

Class 205: Electrolysis: Processes, Compositions Used Therein, And Methods Of Preparing The Compositions

Processes (1) involving the use of electrolysis (2) of preparing or purifying compounds or elements involving chemical reaction brought about by electrical or wave energy in a magnetic field; (3) of treating materials involving chemical reaction brought about by wave energy; (4) of preparing or purifying compounds or elements involving chemical reaction brought about by an electrostatic field or electrical discharge; (5) involving the use of electrophoresis or electro-osmosis; (6) of treating a liquid (a) to separate or purify the liquid using electric and magnetic fields simultaneously, (b) to separate or purify the liquid using an electric field, or (c) using a magnetic field to obtain some effect other than mere separation or purification of the liquid; (7) involving coating, forming, or etching by the use of sputtering; and (8) involving coating by the use of vacuum arc discharge. Electrolyte compositions specialized for use in electrolytic processes or methods of preparing the compositions.

Subclass 124: Predominantly nonmetal electrolytic coating (e.g., anodic oxide, etc.)
Subclass 199: Electrolytic coating is oxygen-containing (e.g., chromate, silicate, oxide formed by anodizing, etc.)
Subclass 221: Selected area
Subclass 224: Heating
Subclass 229: Predominantly nonmetal electrolytic coating

Class 318: Electricity: Motive Power Systems

This is the generic class for system of electrical supply and/or of control for one or more electric motors where the electric motor is claimed in combination with such systems of supply and/or control and the electric motor as claimed constitutes the ultimate and sole electrical load device supplied by the system or constitutes the ultimate and sole electrical device being controlled.


Class 356: Optics: Measuring And Testing

Methods and apparatus (1) for analyzing light to measure or test its characteristics, such as intensity, color and polarization; (2) for determining the optical or nonoptical properties of materials or articles by noting, as by inspection, measurement, or test the effect produced by the materials or articles on light associated therewith; and (3) for measuring the dimensions of structures or the spatial relationships such as distances or angle bearings of spaced points by comparison of the respective properties (usually direction or spatial position) of the light from these points or by comparison of the properties of these lights with some scale or standard. The light analyzing includes or is for spectroscopy, interference, polarization, beam direction or pattern, focal position of a light source, shade or color, and photometers. The material or article properties determined are or involve crystal or gem examination, material strain analysis, blood analysis, optical pyrometers, egg candling, cutting blade sharpness, oil testing, document verification, flatness, lens or reflector testing, refraction testing, monitoring moving webs or fabrics, light transmission or absorption, light reflection, inspection for flaws or imperfections in materials, and thread counting. The dimensioning and spatial relationship determination includes triangulation by a light beam, contour plotting, range or height finders, motion stopping, velocity or velocity/height measuring, sighting where the optical element or reticle moves with the sighted object, particle size determination, particle light scattering, electrophoresis, angle measuring or axial alignment, mensuration or configuration comparison, alignment in a lateral direction, and fiducial instruments.

Subclass 328: Having diffraction grating means
Subclass 454: Fabry-Perot type or Etalon Type

Class 331: Oscillators

This is the generic class for electrical oscillators.

Subclass 154: ELECTROMECHANICAL RESONATOR

Class 324: Electricity: Measuring And Testing

This is the residual home for all subject matter, not elsewhere classified, relating to the measuring, testing (or sensing) of electric properties, (e.g., determining ground resistivity, determining frequency of an alternating current, determining kilowatt hour demand), or the measuring, testing or sensing of nonelectric properties by electric means (e.g., determining moisture, a nonelectric property, by measuring conductance with a resistance bridge; determining speed, a nonelectric property by use of an electric tachometer).

Subclass 750: System sensing fields adjacent device under test (DUT)
Subclass 753: Using electro-optic device

Class 269: Work Holders

A device which, during a work treating operation, contacts a workpiece for the purpose of (a) supporting the work against the force of gravity; or (b) preventing movement of the work in a particular direction or in all directions while, as disclosed, such work is supported against the force of gravity; or (c) providing a surface juxtaposed to the work for constraining the motion of a tool during its performance of such work treating operation. Holding articles together so that (by disclosure) a glue, cement or adhesive may set and secure said articles together is considered to be a work holding operation for this class. Thus a clamp or vise, disclosed for use by cabinet makers, carpenters, woodworkers, etc., to hold plural pieces together while an adhesive sets, is properly classifiable in this class.

Subclass 43: Workpieces parallel to each other (e.g., box-shook clamp)
Subclass 156: Three coacting work grippers
Subclass 277: Coacting elements loosely positioned between jaws

Class 361: Electricity: Electrical Systems And Devices

Systems or devices which provide safety and protection for other systems and devices; control circuits for electromagnetic devices and non-electromagnetic-type relays. Systems or devices which discharge, or prevent the accumulation of electrical charge on or in an object or material; circuits for charging objects or materials. Systems for generating or conducting an electric charge. Systems which process electrical speed signals. Circuits for reversing the polarity of an electric circuit. Systems which cause the ignition of a fuel or an explosive charge. Systems and processes for demagnetizing a magnetic field. Transformers and inductors with integral switch, capacitor or lock. Electrostatic capacitors, per se. Housings and mounting assemblies with plural diverse electrical components. Electrolytic systems and devices.

Subclass 760: Connection of components to board
Subclass 761: Component within printed circuit board
Subclass 785: With separable connector or socket means
Subclass 791: Multiple contact pins

Class 428: Stock Material Or Miscellaneous Articles

This is the residual class for: 1. Stock material in the form of a structurally defined web, sheet, rod, strand, fiber, filament, cell, flake, particle not provided elsewhere. 2. Stock material in the form of a web, sheet, mass or layer which consists of or contains a structurally defined constituent or element. 3. A nonstructural laminate defined merely in terms of the composition of one or more layers. 4. An article of manufacture or an intermediate-article not provided for elsewhere. 5. A process for applying an impregnating material to a naturally solid product such as a wood beam, a sheet of leather or a stone, or for applying a coating to a base, and which process includes no significant method step.

Subclass 672: Au-base component

Class 228: Metal Fusion Bonding

Method of joining the meeting faces of juxtaposed or engaged metal work parts or of the same part originally in a form-sustaining state, by the direct application of heat and/or mechanical energy to either of: (a) such work parts, to such an extent as to effect a flowing or blending together of some of the metal in neighboring regions of said work parts into a continuous metallic zone interconnecting said work parts, or (b) such work parts and a metallic filler, to such an extent as to effect a flowing or blending together of the filler and some of the metal of said work portions into a continuous metallic zone interconnecting said work portions with filler and thus with each other.

Subclass 121: Bonding nonmetals with metallic filler

Class 420: Alloys Or Metallic Compositions

This is the generic class for alloys containing metal or metallic compositions which contain a continuous phase of metal and methods of making same not provided elsewhere. This class will also take "elemental" metal, per se.

Subclass 507: GOLD BASE

Class 501: Compositions: Ceramic

This is the generic class for: Glass compositions and compositions for making glass, i.e., glass batch compositions, devitrified glass-ceramic compositions and processes for producing such compositions. These compositions may be regarded as thermoplastic compositions. Refractory compositions comprising primarily earthy, inorganic materials, and/or elemental carbon. Fired clay containing compositions in the nature of porcelain, earthenware, and similar materials. These compositions may be regarded as thermosetting compositions

Subclass 102: Zirconium compound containing
Subclass 103: Zirconium oxide
Subclass 104: And alkaline earth metal or magnesium compound